Care can be beneficial if parents (1) increase offspring survival during the stage in which parents and offspring are associated, (2) improve offspring quality in a way that leads to increased offspring survival and/or reproduction in the future when parents are no longer associated with offspring, and/or (3) directly
What do male birds do?
Unlike mammals, most male birds don't have penises. Instead, both male and female birds have what's known as a cloaca. The cloaca is an internal chamber that ends in an opening, and through this opening, a bird's sex organs — testes or ovaries — discharge sperm or eggs.
Which animal stays with parents longest?
The largest land mammal on the earth has one of the strongest bonds between her calf. With the longest gestation period of any mammal (22 months), elephant moms nurse their calves for four to six years. Even after they are weaned, elephants stay with their mothers for about 16 years.