Why is there a volcano in Iceland?
The volcanoes of Iceland include a high concentration of active ones due to Iceland's location on the mid-Atlantic Ridge, a divergent tectonic plate boundary, and its location over a hot spot. The island has 30 active volcanic systems, of which 13 have erupted since the settlement of Iceland in AD 874.
Iceland uses the hot water generated underground by its numerous volcanoes for generating electricity (this source of energy--geothermal--does not generate greenhouse gases, the way conventional power plants do). Geothermal waters are also used to warm homes, offices, spas, and swimming pools.
- Iceland was formed from volcanic eruptions on the Mid-Atlantic ridge. Iceland was formed for about 24 million years. Iceland is the only place where you can stand on the ridge on dry land. And that can trigger volcanoes or earthquakes.
- The reason why we haven't had any volcanoes for about 60 million years in Britain is that we are now in a in a tectonically quiet part of the world. Most volcanoes occur near the edges of the Earth's tectonic plates but Britain is now a long way from such geologically active areas.
- Iceland was settled in 874 AD. The first settler was Ingólfur Arnarson, who settled in Reykjavík. Many of the early settlers of Iceland were small lords and kings from Norway who were fleeing the tyrrany of Harald the Fairhaired who wanted to unify Norway under one king, namely himself.
Jagged flecks of ash spewed into the air may have boosted the effects of the 2010 eruption of Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano, which paralyzed flights across Europe, a new study finds. The ash plume from Eyjafjallajökull caused turmoil in the air for nearly a month. Still, the eruption was a relatively small event.
- The Yellowstone volcano is a “super volcano”. Another difference is that most super volcanoes are thought to be the result of a “hot spot” or mantle plume. The magma that feeds them comes from deep within the Earth, not simply crust material that has melted and risen back to the surface.
- Jagged flecks of ash spewed into the air may have boosted the effects of the 2010 eruption of Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano, which paralyzed flights across Europe, a new study finds. The ash plume from Eyjafjallajökull caused turmoil in the air for nearly a month. Still, the eruption was a relatively small event.
- Eyjafjallajokull is cone shaped, the 6th biggest glacier in Iceland, covering an area of 78 sq. km. Several steep glacier tongues protrude from the mountain.
The cause of Eyjafjallajökull's explosive eruption seemed to be the meeting of one body of magma, made up mostly of the common volcanic rock basalt, with another type of magma within the volcano, consisting largely of silica-rich trachyandesite.
- List of Volcanic Hazards
- Pyroclastic Density Currents (pyroclastic flows and surges)
- Structural Collapse: Debris flow-Avalanches.
- Dome Collapse and the formation of pyroclastic flows and surges.
- Lava flows.
- Tephra fall and ballistic projectiles.
- Volcanic gas.
- The area encircling the Pacific Ocean is called the "Ring of Fire," because its edges mark a circle of high volcanic and seismic activity (earthquakes). Most of the active volcanoes on Earth are located on this circumference.
- The Pacific Plate, which drives much of the tectonic activity in the Ring of Fire, is cooling off. Scientists have discovered that the youngest parts of the Pacific Plate (about 2 million years old) are cooling off and contracting at a faster rate than older parts of the plate (about 100 million years old).
Updated: 18th September 2018