The orderly, crystalline way in which the hydrogen-bonds form causes density to decrease because each water molecule is held away from its neighbors at a distance equal to the length of the hydrogen bonds. Thus water expands as it freezes, and ice floats atop water.
So, how much does water expand when it turns to steam?
The density of liquid water is approximately 0.96 grams per cubic centimeter at 100 C at atmospheric pressure. The density of water vapor at 100 C at atmospheric pressure is about a factor of 1600 less, and so water expands by a factor of 1600 when it turns into steam at atmospheric pressure.
When liquid water is cooled, it contracts like one would expect until a temperature of approximately 4 degrees Celsius is reached. After that, it expands slightly until it reaches the freezing point, and then when it freezes it expands by approximately 9%. Water's "density maximum" is a product of the same phenomenon.
Each has two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, H20. The extraordinary stickiness of water is due to the two hydrogen atoms, which are arranged on one side of the molecule and are attracted to the oxygen atoms of other nearby water molecules in a state known as "hydrogen bonding."
When lakes and ponds freeze, the ice on the surface forms pockets of air and helps insulate the water so it doesn't freeze solid. Ice helps protect most aquatic plants and animals throughout the winter months. As ice melts in spring, it absorbs heat from the environment to slowly change its state back to liquid.
This sticking together of like substances is called cohesion. Depending on how attracted molecules of the same substance are to one another, the substance will be more or less cohesive. Hydrogen bonds cause water to be exceptionally attracted to each other. Therefore, water is very cohesive.
The answer to your question is that, in general, a given volume of liquid water at room temperature will increase in volume by about 9.05% after freezing. Most materials do the opposite, that is, the solid form of most substances is more dense than their liquid form.
The temperature of the ice will continue to decrease until it reaches the same temperature as the outside air which is 20 F. Liquid water has more energy than frozen water. When water freezes it gives up some of the water's energy. This energy that is given up is the latent heat of freezing.
The Expansion of Water Upon Freezing. The fact that water expands upon freezing causes icebergs to float. The fact that water reaches a maximum density at about 4°C causes bodies of water to freeze on the top first.
Because of the relatively high attraction of water molecules for each other through a web of hydrogen bonds, water has a higher surface tension (72.8 millinewtons per meter at 20 °C) compared to that of most other liquids. Surface tension is an important factor in the phenomenon of capillarity.
The water level remains the same when the ice cube melts. A floating object displaces an amount of water equal to its own weight. Since water expands when it freezes, one ounce of frozen water has a larger volume than one ounce of liquid water.
What do you think happens to water molecules when liquid water changes to solid ice? Water is unusual because its molecules move further apart when it freezes. The molecules of just about every other substance move closer together when they freeze.
Other substances that expand on freezing are silicon, gallium, germanium, antimony, bismuth, plutonium and also chemical compounds that form spacious crystal lattices with tetrahedral coordination. EDIT:The same paragraph says silicon dioxide also exhibits this property.
What is so special about water at 4 degrees celsius? 4 degrees C turns out to be the temperature at which liquid water has the highest density. If you heat it or cool it, it will expand. The expansion of water when you cool it to lower temperatures is unusual, since most liquids contract when they're cooled.
As the liquid cools down, the amount of potential energy is reduced and the molecules start to move slower. When the water temperature reaches around 0°C, the molecules stick together and form a solid – ice. So water turning into ice is not as straight forward as just getting cold.
We've all been taught that water freezes at 32 degrees Fahrenheit, 0 degrees Celsius, 273.15 Kelvin. That's not always the case, though. Scientists have found liquid water as cold as -40 degrees F in clouds and even cooled water down to -42 degrees F in the lab.
The water molecules attract one another due to the water's polar property. The hydrogen ends, which are positive in comparison to the negative ends of the oxygen cause water to "stick" together. This is why there is surface tension and takes a certain amount of energy to break these intermolecular bonds.
Evaporation happens when a liquid substance becomes a gas. When water is heated, it evaporates. The molecules move and vibrate so quickly that they escape into the atmosphere as molecules of water vapor. Evaporation is a very important part of the water cycle.
When water freezes, water molecules form a crystalline structure maintained by hydrogen bonding. Solid water, or ice, is less dense than liquid water. Ice is less dense than water because the orientation of hydrogen bonds causes molecules to push farther apart, which lowers the density.
An equal volume of water, when frozen, will actually weigh less than an equivalent volume of a liquid, since water actually becomes less dense when it becomes a solid. This is a fairly anomalous property among molecules, most of which increase in density when transitioning to solid phase.
Polarity simply means that the molecule has both a positively and negatively charged end. More important, the polarity of water is responsible for effectively dissolving other polar molecules, such as sugars and ionic compounds such as salt. Ionic compounds dissolve in water to form ions.
When water freezes, it gets less dense. That is why ice cubes float in a glass of water. It also takes a lot of energy removal to freeze water, and the air is usually much colder than the earth at the bottom of the lake. So the cold comes from the air above the lake, and starts freezing the water from the surface.