Sadly, carborane is rather rare, and likely won't be making a wide appearance in chemistry classes anytime soon. *Technically carborane is the world's strongest solo acid because fluoroantimonic acid is a mixture of antimony pentafluoride and hydrofluoric acid.
The above order of acidic character can be explained in terms of strength of H-X bonds, which is in the order H-I< H-Br < H-Cl < H-F. Since H-1 bond is weakest, therefore, HI is the strongest acid. On the other hand H-F bond is strongest, hence it is the weakest acid among all the halogen acids.
The carborane superacid H(CHB11Cl11), which is thousand times stronger than the strength of sulfuric acid, is entirely non-corrosive, whereas the weak acid hydrofluoric acid (HF) is corrosive and can dissolve, among other things, glass and most metals.
Here are the 13 most acidic fruits and their pH value as observed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA):
- Lemon Juice (2.00 – 2.60)
- Limes (2.00 - 2.80)
- Cranberry Juice (2.30 – 2.52)
- Blue Plums (2.80 – 3.40)
- Grapes (2.90 – 3.82)
- Pomegranates (2.93 – 3.20)
- Grapefruits (3.00 – 3.75)
- Blueberries (3.12 – 3.33)
Strongest Superacid. The world's strongest superacid is fluoroantimonic acid, HSbF6. It is formed by mixing hydrogen fluoride (HF) and antimony pentafluoride (SbF5). Various mixtures produce the superacid, but mixing equal ratios of the two acids produces the strongest superacid known to man.
Mixing acids and bases can cancel out or neutralize their extreme effects. A substance that is neither acidic nor basic is neutral. The pH scale measures how acidic or basic a substance is. The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14.
The world's strongest acid, at least a million times more potent than concentrated sulphuric acid, has been made in a lab in California. Perhaps confusingly, it is also one of the least corrosive. The compound, called a carborane acid, is the first 'superacid' that can be stored in a bottle, say its creators.
The HCl bond should be less polarized than the HF bond. Dear 5110 student, You are right, F is more electronegative than Cl, and if the only factor were electronegativity, HF would be stronger than HCl. But it isn't, HF is a weak acid.
By Hammett acidity function, fluoroantimonic acid is the most acidic. The carborane superacid reported by the Reed group is also often cited as the strongest acid known.
Hydrofluoric acid is a weak acid, unlike the other hydrogen halides, which are strong acids. Fluorine has strong affinity for hydrogen, and so it takes tremendous amount of energy to break the strong H-F bond in water. Also, because of the high electronegativity of fluorine, there is extensive hydrogen bonding in HF.
Sulfuric acid is dangerous because it is an extremely strong dehydrating agent. The corrosive action of acid on living tissues is due to the catalytic reaction of acid-base in ester and amide hydrolysis. The corrosive acids will react with the skin and hydrolyze the fats which are the chemical forms of esters.
In chemistry, a superbase is an extremely basic compound or caustic substance that has a high affinity for protons. The hydroxide ion is the strongest base possible in aqueous solutions, but bases that exist with much greater strengths than the bases that could exist in aqueous solutions are possible.
It isn't. In terms of dissociation, HI has a pKa of -9.3 and HBr has a pKa of -8.7 compared to the pKa of HCl at -6.3. In water, however, functionally they are basically of equal strength because they are all stronger acids than the hydronium ion, which means that they will dissociate and protonate water to completion.
Alkali salts are soluble hydroxides of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, of which common examples are:
- Sodium hydroxide – often called "caustic soda"
- Potassium hydroxide – commonly called "caustic potash"
- Lye – generic term for either of the previous two or even for a mixture.
There are only 7 common strong acids.
- HCl - hydrochloric acid.
- HNO3 - nitric acid.
- H2SO4 - sulfuric acid (HSO4- is a weak acid)
- HBr - hydrobromic acid.
- HI - hydroiodic acid.
- HClO4 - perchloric acid.
- HClO3 - chloric acid.
Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water. It is a precursor to almost all fluorine compounds, including pharmaceuticals such as fluoxetine (Prozac), diverse materials such as PTFE (Teflon), and elemental fluorine itself.
Moveover, HI is even stronger than HBr (consider the covalent bond radius) whereas HCl is weaker than HBr. HBr is a strong acid because the overlap of orbitals between H and Br atom is small due to the different orbital size, 1s and 4p orbitals, hence the bond strength of H-Br is weak and is easily broken.
Sulfuric acid is a stronger acid than nitric acid, which is a stronger acid than acetic acid. All of the hydrogen atoms are attached to oxygen atoms in these acids. Note that sulfuric acid has two full positive charges on sulfur.
A carborane is a cluster composed of boron, carbon and hydrogen atoms. Carboranes are a notable example of heteroboranes.
Superacids are use to create stable carbocations. Carbocations are used for the polymerization of plastics and the formation of high octane gasoline. Superacids are the only solvents for carbon nanotubes. These properties are due to the tremendous ability of superacids to protonate a diversity of substances.