A carboxyl group consists of a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen and also bonded to a -OH group. Compounds with carboxyl groups are called carboxylic acids or organic acids. The carboxyl group can act as an acid when by donating a proton (H+) to a solution and becoming ionized.
Similarly, it is asked, what forms a disulfide bond?
Disulfide bonds in proteins are formed between the thiol groups of cysteine residues by the process of oxidative folding. The other sulfur-containing amino acid, methionine, cannot form disulfide bonds. That is, the disulfide bond destabilizes the unfolded form of the protein by lowering its entropy.
Which functional group acts as a weak base?
Keyboard Shortcuts for using Flashcards:
|Alcohol||highly polar and may act as a weak acid O-H|
|carboxylic acid||acts as an acid -COOH|
|aldehyde||may be a structural isomer of a ketone C=O|
|thiol||forms disulfide bonds S-H|
In organic chemistry it is very common to see molecules comprised mainly of a carbon backbone with functional groups attached to the chain. The functional group gives the molecule its properties, regardless of what molecule contains it*; they are centers of chemical reactivity.
Answer and Explanation: Amino acids contain an amine group and carboxylic acid group. The amine group can be identified because it contains a nitrogen atom. The carboxylic acid group is a carbon that has a double bond to an oxygen and another bond to an oxygen bound to a hydrogen.
Carboxylic acids are polar. Because they are both hydrogen-bond acceptors (the carbonyl –C=O) and hydrogen-bond donors (the hydroxyl –OH), they also participate in hydrogen bonding. Together the hydroxyl and carbonyl group forms the functional group carboxyl.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH. It contains oxygen bonded to hydrogen. In organic chemistry, alcohol and carboxylic acids contain hydroxy groups. According to IUPAC rules, the term hydroxyl refers to the radical OH only, while the functional group −OH is called hydroxy group.
What makes saturated triglycerides considerably less healthy than unsaturated ones? They possess no double bonds between carbon atoms making them more tightly packed together.
The six most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. Atoms of these elements combine and form thousands of large molecules. These large molecules make up the structures of cells and carry out many processes essential to life.
It differs from DNA chemically in two respects: (1) the nucleotides in RNA are ribonucleotides—that is, they contain the sugar ribose (hence the name ribonucleic acid) rather than deoxyribose; (2) although, like DNA, RNA contains the bases adenine (A), guanine (G), and cytosine (C), it contains the base uracil (U)
As mentioned earlier, however, there are three fundamental differences that account for the very different functions of the two molecules. RNA has a ribose sugar instead of a deoxyribose sugar like DNA. RNA nucleotides have a uracil base instead of thymine.
DNA is usually double stranded and most cellular RNA is single stranded. 1)In DNA the pentose sugar is deoxyribose.Whereas in RNA the pentose sugar is ribose. 2)In DNA the common organic bases are adenine,guanine,cytosine and thymine.Whereas in RNA the common organic bases are adenine,guanine,cytosine and uracil. 3)In
The DNA contains the master plan for the creation of the proteins and other molecules and systems of the cell, but the carrying out of the plan involves transfer of the relevant information to RNA in a process called transcription. The RNA to which the information is transcribed is messenger RNA (mRNA).
As for function DNA is basically a string of genes and RNA is what converts the information in the DNA into proteins. DNA is the control molecule of the cell and sits in the nucleus. It is made of two strands, connected by hydrogen bonds. Each strand is made of nucleotides.
A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Genes, which are made up of DNA, act as instructions to make molecules called proteins. In humans, genes vary in size from a few hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million bases.
The three main functions of DNA are as follows.
- To form proteins and RNA.
- To exchange the genetic material of parental chromosomes during meiotic cell division.
- To facilitate occurring mutations and even mutational change in a single nucleotide pair, called point mutation.
The four roles DNA plays are replication, encoding information, mutation/recombination and gene expression.
- Replication. DNA exists in a double-helical arrangement, in which each base along one strand binds to a complementary base on the other strand.
- Encoding Information.
- Mutation and Recombination.
- Gene Expression.
The three basic steps of DNA extraction are 1) lysis, 2) precipitation, and 3) purification.
- Step 1: Lysis. In this step, the cell and the nucleus are broken open to release the DNA inside and there are two ways to do this.
- Step 2: Precipitation.
- Step 3: Purification.
DNA isolation is a process of purification of DNA from sample using a combination of physical and chemical methods. The first isolation of DNA was done in 1869 by Friedrich Miescher. Currently it is a routine procedure in molecular biology or forensic analyses.
There are three main stages: Denaturing – when the double-stranded template DNA is heated to separate it into two single strands. Annealing – when the temperature is lowered to enable the DNA primers to attach to the template DNA.
This is the PCR step in which the hydrogen bonds holding the complementary strands of DNA together are broken. The second step in a PCR cycle is the annealing step. The annealing step is the PCR step in which the primers anneal, or attach, to the DNA template. The third step in a PCR cycle is the extension step.
For PCR there are five chemical components needed, including a DNA template, DNA polymerase enzyme, primers, nucleotides and reaction buffer. The DNA template is that particular DNA sequence which you want copied.