The direction of the field line at a point is the direction of the field at that point. The relative magnitude of the electric field is proportional to the density of the field lines. Where the field lines are close together the field is strongest; where the field lines are far apart the field is weakest.
Which way do electrons flow in an electric field?
The uniform e-field above points away from the positive charges, towards the negatives. Imagine a tiny positive test charge dropped in the e-field; it should follow the direction of the arrows. As we've seen, electricity usually involves the flow of electrons–negative charges–which flow against electric fields.
Answer: The force between them increases. It doesn't matter whether the force is attractive or repulsive. If the charges are kept constant in magnitude, reducing the distance between them (bringing them closer together) increases the force between them.
In electrostatics free charges in a good conductor reside only on the surface. So the free charge inside the conductor is zero. So the field in it is caused by charges on the surface. Since charges are of the same nature and distribution is UNIFORM, the electric fields cancel each other.
The electric field immediately above the surface of a conductor is directed normal to that surface. Now, the gaussian surface encloses no charge, since all of the charge lies on the shell, so it follows from Gauss' law, and symmetry, that the electric field inside the shell is zero.
The difference for magnetic field lines is that they are not formed between two independent magnetic monopoles (not yet confirmed to exist), but by one magnetic dipole. In this way magnetic field lines do not originate or terminate between two independent objects, but forms a closed loop with itself.
The statement that electric field lines cannot pass through a conductor, is simply wrong. If the electrons don't feel a force, the electric field must be zero. This doesn't apply to insulators, since there, the charged particles can't move.
If the electrons within a conductor have assumed an equilibrium state, then the net force upon those electrons is zero. The electric field lines either begin or end upon a charge and in the case of a conductor, the charge exists solely upon its outer surface.
When a charged object is grounded, the excess charge is balanced by the transfer of electrons between the charged object and a ground. So whenever you touch any charged object then your body acts as a path to the flow of charge from excessively charged object to ground, thus charged object becomes neutral after that.
If they did, they would be telling you that the force on a charge at that location would point in two different directions, which does not make any sense at all. Equipotential lines at different potentials can never cross either. This is because they are, by definition, a line of constant potential.
The field line along the surface means that the charges would move along the surface in the direction of the field lines. Thus there cannot be any field component along the surface which leaves the field lines no option other than to be perpendicular to the surface.
The direction of the electric field is always directed in the direction that a positive test charge would be pushed or pulled if placed in the space surrounding the source charge. As such, the lines are directed away from positively charged source charges and toward negatively charged source charges.
Thinking back to like charges repelling, if a proton is moving away from a proton and towards an electron, if you were to put an electron into that field, it would move against the field lines (because it moves in the opposite direction as the proton but along the same line) simply because, again, like charges repel
Electric field intensity is the strength of an electric field at any point. It is equal to the electric force per unit charge experienced by a test charge placed at that point. The unit of measurement is volts per meter or newtons per coulomb.
Electric field strength is a quantitative expression of the intensity of an electric field at a particular location. The standard unit is the volt per meter (v/m or v. m -1).
Electric field is defined as the electric force per unit charge. The direction of the field is taken to be the direction of the force it would exert on a positive test charge. The electric field is radially outward from a positive charge and radially in toward a negative point charge.
An electric dipole is a separation of positive and negative charges. The simplest example of this is a pair of electric charges of equal magnitude but opposite sign, separated by some (usually small) distance. A permanent electric dipole is called an electret.
If the charge is positive, it will experience a force in the same direction as the field; if it is negative the force will be opposite to the field. When there is more than one charge in a region, the electric field lines will not be straight lines; they will curve in response to the different charges.
Conventional Current Direction. The particles that carry charge through wires in a circuit are mobile electrons. The electric field direction within a circuit is by definition the direction that positive test charges are pushed. Thus, these negatively charged electrons move in the direction opposite the electric field.
If the lines cross each other at a given location, then there must be two distinctly different values of electric field with their own individual direction at that given location. This could never be the case. Every single location in space has its own electric field strength and direction associated with it.
The net electric charge of a conductor resides entirely on its surface. (The mutual repulsion of like charges from Coulomb's Law demands that the charges be as far apart as possible, hence on the surface of the conductor.) 2. The electric field inside the conductor is zero.