The major glands of the endocrine system are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pineal body, and the reproductive organs (ovaries and testes). The pancreas is also a part of this system; it has a role in hormone production as well as in digestion.
Also, where can endocrine glands be located?
Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood rather than through a duct. The major glands of the endocrine system include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands.
In addition to the specialized endocrine organs mentioned above, many other organs that are part of other body systems, such as bone, kidney, liver, heart and gonads, have secondary endocrine functions. For example, the kidney secretes endocrine hormones such as erythropoietin and renin.
While all cells are exposed to hormones circulating in the bloodstream, not all cells react. Only a hormone's "target" cells, which have receptors for that hormone, will respond to its signal. When the hormone binds to its receptor, it causes a biological response within the cell.
Parathyroid glands are four small glands of the endocrine system which regulate the calcium in our bodies. Parathyroid glands are located in the neck behind the thyroid where they continuously monitor and regulate blood calcium levels.
The integumentary system comprises the skin and its appendages acting to protect the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or abrasion from outside. The integumentary system includes hair, scales, feathers, hooves, and nails.
The pancreas is located deep inside the abdomen. Credit: Sebastian Kaulitzki. The endocrine system is the collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood, among other things.
The pancreas produces 2 antagonistic hormones to control blood sugar: glucagon and insulin. The alpha cells of the pancreas produce glucagon. Glucagon raises blood glucose levels by stimulating the liver to metabolize glycogen into glucose molecules and to release glucose into the blood.
It serves many different functions in the nervous system, and is also responsible for the direct control of the endocrine system through the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus contains special cells called neurosecretory cells—neurons that secrete hormones: Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). The hypothalamus is located below the thalamus and is part of the limbic system. In the terminology of neuroanatomy, it forms the ventral part of the diencephalon.
Although it is no bigger than a pea, the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain just beneath the hypothalamus, is considered the most important part of the endocrine system. It's often called the "master gland" because it makes hormones that control several other endocrine glands.
The adrenal cortex—the outer part of the gland—produces hormones that are vital to life, such as cortisol (which helps regulate metabolism and helps your body respond to stress) and aldosterone (which helps control blood pressure).
The nervous system can respond quickly to stimuli, through the use of action potentials and neurotransmitters. Responses to nervous system stimulation are typically quick but short lived. The endocrine system responds to stimulation by secreting hormones into the circulatory system that travel to the target tissue.
Of the endocrine organs, the function of the pineal gland was the last discovered. Located deep in the center of the brain, the pineal gland was once known as the “third eye.” The pineal gland produces melatonin, which helps maintain circadian rhythm and regulate reproductive hormones.
The major glands of the endocrine system include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are neuroendocrine organs.
The adrenal glands are composed of two heterogenous types of tissue. In the center is the adrenal medulla, which produces adrenaline and noradrenaline and releases them into the bloodstream, as part of the sympathetic nervous system. Surrounding the medulla is the cortex, which produces a variety of steroid hormones.
A gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).
The hypothalamus is a small area of your brain. It's very important in controlling the balance of your bodily functions. It controls the release of hormones from the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland can be divided into two different parts: the anterior and posterior lobes.
Endocrinologists have the training to diagnose and treat hormone imbalances and problems by helping to restore the normal balance of hormones in the body. The common diseases and disorders of the endocrine system that endocrinologists deal with include diabetes mellitus and thyroid disorders.
The human body contains as many as nine ductless glands and five ducted glands, depending on gender and physiology. These 14 major glands are essential for conducting a wide range of key biological processes.
The Pancreas and Its Functions. The pancreas is an organ located in the abdomen. It plays an essential role in converting the food we eat into fuel for the body's cells. The pancreas has two main functions: an exocrine function that helps in digestion and an endocrine function that regulates blood sugar.