Magma Composition. Magma is primarily a very hot liquid, which is called a 'melt.' It is formed from the melting of rocks in the earth's lithosphere, which is the outermost shell of the earth made of the earth's crust and upper part of the mantle, and the asthenosphere, which is the layer below the lithosphere.
What is lava made out of?
When lava erupts it is made up of a slush of crystals, liquid, and bubbles. The liquid "freezes" to form volcanic glass. Chemically lava is made of the elements silicon, oxygen, aluminum, iron, magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and titanium (plus other elements in very small concentrations.
What does lava turn into?
Similarly, liquid magma also turns into a solid — a rock — when it is cooled. When magma rises from deep within the earth and explodes out of a volcano, it is called lava, and it cools quickly on the surface. Rock formed in this way is called extrusive igneous rock.