The tradition of having Australia Day as a national holiday on 26 January is a recent one. Not until 1935 did all the Australian states and territories use that name to mark that date. Not until 1994 did they begin to celebrate Australia Day consistently as a public holiday on that date.
Captain Arthur Phillip didn't land in Australia on 26 January. He first landed in Australia between the 18th and 20th of January 1788 in Botany Bay.
In 1838, 50 years after the First Fleet arrived, Foundation Day was declared Australia's first public holiday in New South Wales. By 1935, January 26 was known as Australia Day in all states except New South Wales, where it was still called Anniversary Day.
For the history of Australia, see History of Australia. Most of the Australian colonies, having been settled from Britain, became mostly independent democratic states in the 1850s and all six combined as a federation on 1 January 1901. The first Prime Minister of Australia was Edmund Barton in 1901.
Australia became an independent nation on 1 January 1901 when the British Parliament passed legislation allowing the six Australian colonies to govern in their own right as part of the Commonwealth of Australia. The Commonwealth of Australia was established as a constitutional monarchy.
The date 25 April was officially named Anzac Day in 1916; in that year it was marked by a wide variety of ceremonies and services in Australia and New Zealand, including a commemorative march through London involving Australian and New Zealand troops. In New Zealand it was gazetted as a half-day holiday.
In military tradition, the Last Post is the bugle call that signifies the end of the day's activities. It is also sounded at military funerals to indicate that the soldier has gone to his final rest and at commemorative services such as ANZAC Day and Remembrance Day.
The 25th of April soon became the day on which Australians remember the sacrifice of those who had died in the war. The Anzacs were courageous and although the Gallipoli campaign failed in its military objectives, the Australian and New Zealand actions during the campaign left us all a powerful legacy.
The campaign began with a failed naval attack by British and French ships on the Dardanelles Straits in February-March 1915 and continued with a major land invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula on April 25, involving British and French troops as well as divisions of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC).
The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli, or the Battle of Çanakkale (Turkish: Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 17 February 1915 and 9 January 1916.
The Gallipoli Campaign cost the Allies 141,113 killed and wounded and the Turks 195,000. Gallipoli proved to be the Turks' greatest victory of the war. In London, the campaign's failure led to the demotion of Winston Churchill and contributed to the collapse of Prime Minister H. H. Asquith's government.
The Gallipoli campaign was intended to force Germany's ally, Turkey, out of the war. It began as a naval campaign, with British battleships sent to attack Constantinople (now Istanbul). This failed when the warships were unable to force a way through the straits known as the Dardanelles.
It was on this day 100 years ago that the first Allied landings took place on the Gallipoli peninsula in an attempt to seize the Dardanelles and open a sea route to Constantinople (now Istanbul) that would enable Britain and her allies to establish a southern front against their enemies during the First World War.
Gallipoli is a peninsula which is located in northwest coast of Turkey between Gulf of Saros and Dardanelles. This battle took place in the year 1915 and it was fought during World War I (1914-1918). In the Battle of Gallipoli troops were landed by the British using Australia and New Zealand Army Crops.
The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) was a First World War army corps of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force. It was formed in Egypt in December 1914, and operated during the Battle of Gallipoli.
The Dardanelles Strait, a vital transportation bridge between the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea, is a narrow channel of water that connects the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. It separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey (Trace), thus it also separates the two continents.
The United States entered the war because of the Germans' decision to resume the policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, and the so-called "Zimmerman telegram," intercepted by the British, in which Germany floated the idea of an alliance with Mexico. They abandoned it in the face of US pressure earlier in the war.
The Allies (mainly Britain, France, US) won WW1 which happened from 1914-1919. Germany was the main loser, along with Austria - Hungary, The Ottoman Empire, and the other Central Powers and also Russia, although Russia withdrew from the war early due to civil war issues at home.
Global in scale and in its repercussions, World War II created a new world at home and abroad. Although the war began with Nazi Germany's attack on Poland in September 1939, the United States did not enter the war until after the Japanese bombed the American fleet in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on December 7, 1941.