What structures are unique to plant and animal cells?
The structures of different types of cells are related to their functions. Animal cells and plant cells have features in common, such as a nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria and ribosomes. Plant and algal cells also have a cell wall, and often have chloroplasts and a permanent vacuole.
Structurally, plant and animal cells are very similar because they are both eukaryotic cells. They both contain membrane-bound organelles such as the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and peroxisomes.
- Although, the overall function of the cell is the same, there are some important differences between animal and plant cells. The first difference is that plant cells have an organelle called chloroplast. Chloroplasts contain a pigment called chlorophyll (which gives the plant its green color).
- Chloroplasts are the food producers of the cell. The organelles are only found in plant cells and some protists such as algae. Animal cells do not have chloroplasts. Chloroplasts work to convert light energy of the Sun into sugars that can be used by cells.
- Core organelles are found in virtually all eukaryotic cells. They carry out essential functions that are necessary for the survival of cells – harvesting energy, making new proteins, getting rid of waste and so on. Core organelles include the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and several others.
Special Structures in Plant Cells. Most organelles are common to both animal and plant cells. However, plant cells also have features that animal cells do not have: a cell wall, a large central vacuole, and plastids such as chloroplasts.
- Chloroplasts absorb sunlight and use it in conjunction with water and carbon dioxide gas to produce food for the plant. Chloroplasts capture light energy from the sun to produce the free energy stored in ATP and NADPH through a process called photosynthesis.
- 03 Cell Structure and Function
A B mitochondrion bean-shaped organelle that supplies energy to the cell and has its own ribosomes and DNA (plural: mitochondria) vacuole organelle that is used to store materials, such as water, food, or enzymes, that are needed by the cell lysosome organelle that contains enzymes
- The nucleus, the largest organelle in eukaryotic cells, is surrounded by two membranes, each one a phospholipid bilayer containing many different types of proteins. The inner nuclear membrane defines the nucleus itself.
THE THREE MAIN COMPONENTS OF ANY PLANT OR ANIMAL CELL ARE:
- PLASMA MEMBRANE/ CELL MEMBRANE. Structure- a bilipid membraneous layer composed of proteins and carbohydrates.
- 1. "
- GOLGI BODY / APPARATUS.
- Eukaryotic cells contain many membrane-bound organelles. An organelle is an organized and specialized structure within a living cell. The organelles include the nucleus, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, vacuoles, lysosomes, mitochondria, and, in plants, chloroplasts.
- You can see some cells with your naked eye, such as an unfertilised ostrich egg which is a single cell. But to see most other types of cell, you need a microscope. The more powerful the microscope, the more detail you can see. Some living things, like amoebae, are made of just one cell.
- The rough endoplasmic reticulum is where most protein synthesis occurs in the cell. The function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is to synthesize lipids in the cell. The smooth ER also helps in the detoxification of harmful substances in the cell. Ribosomes- Organelles that help in the synthesis of proteins.
Updated: 16th October 2018