Figure B: Example of Calculating Header Size
|Header Size||Maximum Span||Number of Trimmers|
|Double 2×6||4 ft., 0 in.||One|
|Double 2×8||5 ft., 0 in.||Two|
|Double 2×10||6 ft., 2 in.||Two|
|Double 2×12||7 ft., 1 in.||Two|
How far can a deck be cantilevered?
A southern pine (2) 2x12 beam can span 8 feet when supporting joists spanning a maximum of 14 feet, and it can cantilever 2 feet beyond the posts on each side. With the allowable cantilever of the joists, this beam would support a deck 12 feet by 17 1/2 feet.
Laminated veneer lumber (LVL) is an engineered wood product that uses multiple layers of thin wood assembled with adhesives. It is typically used for headers, beams, rimboard, and edge-forming material.
A Top Plate is the continuous timber beam on top of the walls that supports the roof structure by carrying the vertical forces from the rafters to the wall studs.
A single, flat two-inch by four-inch board may be used as a header in an exterior or interior non-load bearing wall. The maximum opening may not exceed eight feet. The vertical distance to the parallel surface above must be not more than 24 inches. Cripples and blocking are not required above the header.
The job of headers and beams is a simple one. They transfer loads from above to the foundation below through a network of structural elements. Engineered wood components are sized using span tables that match various spans to pounds per foot of beam.
Mark all the plates at once
- Measure the distance between the king studs (door width plus 5 in.).
- TIP: Mark and measure at the same time.
- Mark the cripple locations.
- Keep edges flush.
- Transfer the layout marks to the header.
- First, fasten the header to the king stud.
- Add the cripples before the double top plate.
Jack studs and king studs. The header is supported by a jack stud at each end. Jacks, sometimes called trimmers, fit under each end of a header, and they transfer the load that the header carries down to the bottom plate and the framing beneath.
Framing for a Non-Load-Bearing Door Header. All doors are set into a frame, an opening inside the wall. Exterior door frames must have a top header stout enough to bear the load. Interior doors also need that top header, but it can be of less sturdy material, typically the same 2-by-4-inch lumber used for wall studs.
trimmer or jack − stud to the left or right of a window or door that runs from the bottom plate to the underside of a lintel or header. cripple stud – a stud located either above or below a framed opening, that does not run the full height of the wall.
The header spans an opening for a window or door, or a cut-out in the roof or floor for a skylight, chimney, or staircase. Typically at least twice the size of surrounding framing members, a header is often built up from two studs, joists, or rafters.
To make the studs, measure the height of the door to be installed. Cut 2x4s to the height of the door plus 1 1/2 inches (5.1 cm) to allow room for the top of the frame and allowance for leveling the jamb. To make the door header, cut 2x4s to the width of the original opening.
Conventional framing, the industry standard for framing residential construction, typically consists of 2x4 or 2x6 wood framing spaced 16 inches on center, double top plates, three-stud corners, multiple jack studs, double or triple headers, unnecessary cripple studs and other redundant members.
A structural wall actually carries the weight of your house, from the roof and upper floors, all the way to the foundation. Exterior walls are always load-bearing, and if there is a previous addition involved, some exterior walls may now look like interior walls, but they are almost certainly still load-bearing.
A load-bearing wall or bearing wall is a wall that is an active structural element of a building, that is, it bears the weight of the elements above said wall, resting upon it by conducting its weight to a foundation structure. Load-bearing walls are one of the earliest forms of construction.
In light-frame construction, a trimmer is a timber or metal beam (joist) used to create an opening around a stairwell, skylight, chimney, and the like. Trimmers are installed parallel to the primary floor or ceiling joists and support headers, which run perpendicular to the primary joists.
When supporting joists that span 12 feet with no overhang beyond the beam, a double ply beam can span in feet a value equal to its depth in inches. A double 2x12 beam can span 12 feet; a (2) 2x10 can span 10 feet and so on.
To insert a preset header or footer:
- Select the Insert tab, then click the Header or Footer command.
- In the menu that appears, select the desired preset header or footer.
- The header or footer will appear.
- To edit a Content Control field, click it and type the desired information.
In general terms, joists spaced 16 inches on center can span 1.5 times in feet their depth in inches. A 2x8 up to 12 feet; 2x10 to 15 feet and 2x12 to 18 feet. The larger the deck, the larger the joists.