What research designs are used to study human development?
Regardless of whether studies employ the experimental, correlational, or case study methodology, they can use research designs or logical frameworks to make key comparisons within research studies. Common research designs include longitudinal, cross-sectional, sequential, and microgenetic designs.
Developmental Psychology Applied. Developmental psychologists study human growth and development over the lifespan, including physical, cognitive, social, intellectual, perceptual, personality and emotional growth.
- Here are the four cognitive stages of childhood development as identified by Jean Piaget:
- Sensorimotor Stage: Birth through about 2 years.
- Preoperational Stage: Ages 2 through 7.
- Concrete Operational Stage: Ages 7 through 11.
- Formal Operational Stage: Ages 11 and older.
- Developmental psychologists are interested in the emotional and psychological changes and growth individuals experience over their lifespans. They work in schools, hospitals, clinics, and universities, as well as in private practices.
- Developmental psychopathology is the study of the development of psychological disorders, such as psychopathy, autism, schizophrenia and depression, with a lifecourse perspective. A main idea is that psychopathology can be best understood as normal development gone awry.
And because almost every science has someone who cleverly combines things, we have a sequential design, also sometimes referred to as a cross-sequential design, which is defined as a combination of longitudinal and cross-sectional designs, by following several differently aged cohorts over time.
- Regardless of whether studies employ the experimental, correlational, or case study methodology, they can use research designs or logical frameworks to make key comparisons within research studies. Common research designs include longitudinal, cross-sectional, sequential, and microgenetic designs.
- Longitudinal study. A longitudinal study, like a cross-sectional one, is observational. So, once again, researchers do not interfere with their subjects. However, in a longitudinal study, researchers conduct several observations of the same subjects over a period of time, sometimes lasting many years.
- A cohort effect is the particular impact of a group bonded by time or common life experience (Scott, p. 175). Cohorts in organizations are often defined by entry date, and retain some common characteristic (size, cohesiveness, competition) that can affect the organization (p. 175).
Updated: 21st September 2018