Standard precautions include:
- Hand hygiene.
- Use of personal protective equipment (e.g., gloves, gowns, masks)
- Safe injection practices.
- Safe handling of potentially contaminated equipment or surfaces in the patient environment, and.
- Respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette.
What is personal protective equipment in healthcare?
materials” (OSHA) PPE Use in Healthcare Settings. Personal protective equipment, or PPE, as defined by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, or OSHA, is “specialized clothing or equipment, worn by an employee for protection against infectious materials.”
Fluid resistant gowns should be used when splashes or sprays of blood/body fluids are expected. For contact precautions, gowns are worn during all patient contact and when in the patient's environment. Gowns are always worn in combination with gloves, and with other PPE when indicated.
The procedure for putting on and removing PPE should be tailored to the specific type of PPE.
- GOWN. • Fully cover torso from neck to knees, arms.
- MASK OR RESPIRATOR. • Secure ties or elastic bands at middle.
- GOGGLES OR FACE SHIELD.
- GOGGLES OR FACE SHIELD.
- MASK OR RESPIRATOR.
- Hand hygiene1.
- Gloves. ¦ Wear when touching blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions, mucous membranes, nonintact skin.
- Facial protection (eyes, nose, and mouth) ¦
- Gown. ¦
- Prevention of needle stick and injuries from other.
- Respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette.
- Environmental cleaning. ¦
Diseases requiring airborne precautions include, but are not limited to: Measles, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Varicella (chickenpox), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Airborne precautions apply to patients known or suspected to be infected with microorganisms transmitted by airborne droplet nuclei.
PPE can be considered in the following categories, based on the type of protection afforded by the equipment:
- Respiratory protection - for example, disposable, cartridge, air line, half or full face.
- Eye protection – for example, spectacles/goggles, shields, visors.
- Hearing protection – for example, ear muffs and plugs.
The three categories of Transmission-Based Precautions include:
- Contact Precautions.
- Droplet Precautions.
- Airborne Precautions.
Contact Precautions (C. difficile/Norovirus Patient) NOTE: Alcohol gel does not effectively kill C. difficile spores or norovirus -- USE SOAP & WATER for hand hygiene after contacting patient with C. difficile or norovirus infection or their environment.
Use Universal Precautions. Universal precautions is an approach to infection control to treat all human blood and certain human body fluids as if they were known to be infectious for HIV, HBV and other bloodborne pathogens, (Bloodborne Pathogens Standard 29 CFR 1910.1030(b) definitions).
Gloves, protect the hands, gowns or aprons protect the skin and/or clothing, masks and respirators protect the mouth and nose, goggles protect the eyes, and face shields protect the entire face. The respirator, has been designed to also protect the respiratory tract from airborne transmission of infectious agents.
Standard precautions are a set of infection control practices used to prevent transmission of diseases that can be acquired by contact with blood, body fluids, non-intact skin (including rashes), and mucous membranes.
Hand washing is the single most effective way to prevent the spread of infections. You can spread certain "germs" (a general term for microbes like viruses and bacteria) casually by touching another person.
Person to person. A common way for infectious diseases to spread is through the direct transfer of bacteria, viruses or other germs from one person to another. This can occur when an individual with the bacterium or virus touches, kisses, or coughs or sneezes on someone who isn't infected.
Contact Precautions mean: o Whenever possible, patients with C. diff will have a single room or share a room only with someone else who also has C. diff. o Healthcare providers will put on gloves and wear a gown over their clothing while taking care of patients with C. diff.
Germs that warrant airborne precautions include chickenpox, measles, and tuberculosis (TB) bacteria. People who have these germs should be in special rooms where the air is gently sucked out and not allowed to flow into the hallway. This is called a negative pressure room.
To prevent MRSA infections, doctors, nurses, and other healthcare providers: Clean their hands with soap and water or an alcohol-based hand rub before and after caring for every patient. Use Contact Precautions when caring for patients with MRSA.
Protective Isolation is a range of practices used in hospitals to protect immunocompromised patients from infection or further infection.
Personal protective equipment is specialized equipment or clothing you use to protect yourself and patients from germs. It creates a barrier between the virus, bacteria or fungi and you. PPE includes gloves, gowns, goggles, masks and face shields.
Personal protective equipment (PPE) refers to protective clothing, helmets, gloves, face shields, goggles, facemasks and/or respirators or other equipment designed to protect the wearer from injury or the spread of infection or illness.
Gloves create a barrier between germs and your hands. They help keep your hands clean and lessen your chance of getting germs that can make you sick. Wear gloves every time you will be touching blood, bodily fluids, bodily tissues, mucous membranes, or broken skin.