Ammonia is used to make fertilisers, explosives, dyes, household cleaners and nylon. It is also the most important raw material in the manufacture of nitric acid. Ammonia is manufactured by combining nitrogen and hydrogen in an important industrial process called the Haber process.
Regarding this, what is ammonia made of?
Ammonia is made out of one nitrogen and three hydrogen atoms. Its structure is tetrahedral. Ammonia is used in nitric acid production, as a fertilizer, and a cleaning solution. NH3, normally found as a gas, it is caustic and harmful in longterm exposure.
Where ammonia is made?
The Haber Process combines nitrogen from the air with hydrogen derived mainly from natural gas (methane) into ammonia. The reaction is reversible and the production of ammonia is exothermic. The catalyst is actually slightly more complicated than pure iron.
A typical modern ammonia-producing plant first converts natural gas (i.e., methane) or LPG (liquefied petroleum gases such as propane and butane) or petroleum naphtha into gaseous hydrogen. The hydrogen is then combined with nitrogen to produce ammonia via the Haber-Bosch process.
As proteins in our bodies are destroyed, the waste is utilized, formine urea (carbamide), so ammonia didn't cause to much trouble. However, urea is slowly hydrolized in water back into ammonia, so old urine stincks with (among other things) ammonia.
Ammonia is also used as a refrigerant gas, for purification of water supplies, and in the manufacture of plastics, explosives, textiles, pesticides, dyes and other chemicals. It is found in many household and industrial-strength cleaning solutions.
We produce almost 4grams of ammonia per day just from our intestines. The bloodstream then absorbs this ammonia and takes it to the liver for processing. There the ammonia is turned into urea and re-enters the bloodstream, whereupon it is carried to the kidneys, and excreted from the body by way of the urine.
Gas Preparation. Gently heat a mixture of ammonium chloride and calcium hydroxide in water. Collect the ammonia from the upward displacement of air in a hood.
Deamination of amino acids results in the production of ammonia (NH3). Ammonia is an extremely toxic base and its accumulation in the body would quickly be fatal. However, the liver contains a system of carrier molecules and enzymes which quickly converts the ammonia (and carbon dioxide) into urea.
Ammonia also is effective at breaking down household grime or stains from animal fats or vegetable oils, such as cooking grease and wine stains. Because ammonia evaporates quickly, it is commonly used in glass cleaning solutions to help avoid streaking.
The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.
In its natural form, ammonia is found in water, soil, and air, and is a source of nitrogen for plants and animals. It is commonly sold in liquid form and is a corrosive chemical. The chemical formula for ammonia is NH3. When ammonia is manufactured, it is primarily used to make fertilizer.
When the ammonium ion, NH4+, is formed, the fourth hydrogen is attached by a dative covalent bond, because only the hydrogen's nucleus is transferred from the chlorine to the nitrogen. The hydrogen's electron is left behind on the chlorine to form a negative chloride ion.
Ammonia and the Haber process. Ammonia, NH3, is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen. It is a colourless gas with a choking smell, and a weak alkali that is very soluble in water. Ammonia is used to make fertilisers (as a source of nitrogen for plants), explosives, dyes, household cleaners and nylon.
Ammonia Production by Country (Thousand metric tons of contained nitrogen)
|Rank||Country||World Production, By Country (Thousand metric tons of contained nitrogen)|
Ammonia is a colorless gas with a very distinct odor. This odor is familiar to many people because ammonia is used in smelling salts, many household and industrial cleaners, and window-cleaning products. Ammonia gas can be dissolved in water. This kind of ammonia is called liquid ammonia or aqueous ammonia.
Ammonia is present in soil, water and air, and it is an important source of nitrogen for plants. Nitrogen promotes plant growth and improves fruit and seed production, resulting in a greater yield. Although ammonium ions are effective as fertilizer, the aqueous ammonia is toxic and can damage or kill seedlings.
Some ammonia is converted into nitric acid which itself is used in the manufacture of fertilisers and explosives. Ammonia is also a useful ingredient in some cleaning fluids. Ammonia is a vital route by which nitrogen in the air can be made available to plants to enable them to build protein molecules.
It is also manufactured by man. At normal environmental conditions, pure ammonia is a colourless, pungent-smelling, caustic (corrosive) gas. It is stored under high pressure as a liquid. It is highly soluble in water and reacts with acids to form ammonium salts.
Production. The industrial production of ammonium nitrate entails the acid-base reaction of ammonia with nitric acid: Ammonia is used in its anhydrous form (i.e., gas form) and the nitric acid is concentrated. This reaction is violent owing to its highly exothermic nature.
It is a chemical made up of one part nitrogen and three parts hydrogen. The properties of this fertilizer make it one of the most potentially dangerous chemicals used in agriculture. Ammonia gas is colorless and has a sharp, penetrating odor. When used as an agricultural fertilizer, it is compressed into a liquid.
The raw materials for this process are hydrogen and nitrogen. Hydrogen is obtained by reacting natural gas - methane - with steam, or through the cracking of oil. Nitrogen is obtained by burning hydrogen in air. Air is 80 per cent nitrogen; nearly all the rest is oxygen.
The contact process is the current method of producing sulfuric acid in the high concentrations needed for industrial processes. Platinum used to be the catalyst for this reaction; however, as it is susceptible to reacting with arsenic impurities in the sulfur feedstock, vanadium(V) oxide (V2O5) is now preferred.