Saytzeff's rule (or Zaitsev's rule, Saytzev's rule) is an empirical rule for predicting the favored alkene product(s) in elimination reactions. More generally, Zaitsev's rule predicts that in an elimination reaction, the most substituted product will be the most stable, and therefore the most favored.
In this manner, what is a substituted carbon?
The highlighted carbon is currently being considered the "central" carbon. Simply put Since isobutane (1) has one more atom or group attached to the central carbon than propane (2), it is more substituted.
What is a substituted alkene?
A monosubstituted alkene is an alkene in which the doubly bonded carbons are bonded to only one carbon excluding each other. eg. see also disubstituted alkene, trisubstituted alkene, tetrasubstituted alkene.
What can you use as a substitute for baking soda?
Yes, as long as there is enough of an acidic ingredient to make a reaction (for 1/2 teaspoon baking soda, you need 1 cup of buttermilk or yogurt or 1 teaspoon lemon juice or vinegar). And remember that baking soda has 4 times the power of baking powder, so 1/4 teaspoon soda is equivalent to 1 teaspoon of baking powder.