What is the simplest form of a carbohydrate called?
- Carbohydrates (also called saccharides) are molecular compounds made from just three elements: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
- Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates and are often called single sugars.
A carbohydrate with one unit of sugar is called a simple sugar or a monosaccharide (mono = one; saccharide = sugar). Fructose (fruit sugar) is a monosaccharide, and so are glucose (blood sugar), the sugar produced when you digest carbohydrates, and galactose, the sugar derived from digesting lactose (milk sugar).
- Carbohydrates (also called saccharides) are molecular compounds made from just three elements: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Monosaccharides (e.g. glucose) and disaccharides (e.g. sucrose) are relatively small molecules. They are often called sugars.
- The basic structural unit of protein is the amino acid. To form proteins, amino acids are combined into long chains. There are 20 different amino acids in all. Nine of them are essential, which means that the body cannot manufacture them.
- Fats make up the largest category of lipids, and also go by the terms triacylglycerols, triglycerides, and glycerolipids. There are several types of fats. Saturated fat is a lipid that exists as a solid substance when it is at room temperature. Milk, cheese, meat, and other animal foods contain saturated fat.
Among the compounds that belong to this family are cellulose, starch, glycogen, and most sugars. There are three classes of carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. The monosaccharides are white, crystalline solids that contain a single aldehyde or ketone functional group.
- There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose, and galactose. The "table sugar" or "granulated sugar" most customarily used as food is sucrose, a disaccharide of glucose and fructose.
- 15 Starchy or Complex Carb Foods
- Oatmeal (old-fashioned or Steel Cut)
- Yams (almost same as sweet potatoes)
- Brown rice (love basmati, a long grain rice)
- Sweet potatoes.
- Multigrain hot cereal (mix or barley, oats, rye, triticale, and a few others)
- White potatoes with skin (glycemic index be damned!)
- 100% whole wheat bread.
- Simple carbohydrates have a 'simple' molecular structure and are made up of 1-2 sugar molecules. The simplest form of carbohydrate is glucose. Simple sugars that are found in foods include sucrose (table sugar), fructose (found in fruit), and lactose (found in milk). Not all simple carbs are bad.
The simplest of the amino acids, glycine, has just H as an R-group. Amino acids are the structural elements from which proteins are built. When amino acids bond to each other, it is done in the form of an amide , making a connection which is called a peptide linkage.
- Fatty acids can be joined together to form what are called triglycerides. As the name implies, three fatty acids join together with a glycerol molecule to make up a triglyceride. Triglycerides are the major form of fat in the diet, and the major storage form of fat found in the body.
- Simple lipids: esters of fatty acids with various alcohols. a. Fats: esters of fatty acids with glycerol. Oils are fats in the liquid state.
- Simple sugars are usually added to low-fat foods to give them flavor. They include starch, a form of carbohydrates that plants store, and fiber, the mostly undigested part of the plant. Foods that contain complex carbs include grains, breads, pasta, beans, potatoes, corn and other vegetables.
Updated: 21st October 2019