What is the rough endoplasmic reticulum made out of?
This is an extensive organelle composed of greatly convoluted but flattish sealed sacs, which are contiguous with the nuclear membrane. It is called 'rough' endoplasmic reticulum because it is studded on its outer surface (the surface in contact with the cytosol) with ribosomes.
a network of tubular membranes within the cytoplasm of the cell, occurring either with a smooth surface (smooth endoplasmic reticulum) or studded with ribosomes (rough endoplasmic reticulum), involved in the transport of materials.
- Another organelle in the cell is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). While the function of the nucleus is to act as the cell brain, the ER functions as a manufacturing and packaging system. It works closely with the Golgi apparatus, ribososmes, mRNA, and tRNA.
- Well the nucleolus is a round body located inside the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. It is not surrounded by a membrane but sits in the nucleus. The nucleolus makes ribosomal subunits from proteins and ribosomal RNA, also known as rRNA.
- The cell nucleus contains the majority of the cell's genetic material in the form of multiple linear DNA molecules organized into structures called chromosomes. Each human cell contains roughly two meters of DNA.
Rough ER is called rough because it has ribosomes attached to its surface. The double membranes of smooth and rough ER form sacs called cisternae. Protein molecules are synthesized and collected in the cisternal space/lumen. When enough proteins have been synthesized, they collect and are pinched off in vesicles.
- The membranes that make up the rough endoplasmic reticulum are composed of lipids just like the membrane that surrounds the entire cell itself. The surface of rough endoplasmic reticulum is dotted with other organelles known as ribosomes. Ribosomes are cellular organelles composed of two subunits that produce proteins.
- Ribosomes are where RNA is translated into protein. This process is called protein synthesis. Protein synthesis is very important to cells, therefore large numbers of ribosomes are found in cells. Ribosomes float freely in the cytoplasm, and are also bound to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
- This organelle has two major functions: it stores the cell's hereditary material, or DNA, and it coordinates the cell's activities, which include growth, intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction (cell division). Only the cells of advanced organisms, known as eukaryotes, have a nucleus.
Updated: 18th October 2018