# What is the normal range for SVV?

Normal SVV values are less than 10-15% on controlled mechanical ventilation. The figures below demonstrate using SVV as a guide for volume resuscitation with a goal SVV of <13%. SVV increased to 19% with a stroke volume (SV) of 43 ml/beat, blood and saline were given to obtain a SVV of 6% and a SV of 58 ml/beat.
A.

### What is the normal cardiac index?

Cardiac index (CI) is a haemodynamic parameter that relates the cardiac output (CO) from left ventricle in one minute to body surface area (BSA), thus relating heart performance to the size of the individual. The unit of measurement is litres per minute per square metre (L/min/m2).
• #### What is the normal CVP?

The zero reference level is the right atrium, which is approximated by the sternal manubrium. Central venous pressure is usually reported as cm H2O (1 cm H2O = 0.736 mmHg). Normal central venous pressure ranges from 0 to 5 cm H2O. Pressures above 12 cm H2O might indicate hypervolemia or cardiac failure.
• #### What is the normal range for mean arterial pressure?

Mean arterial pressure significance. As mentioned earlier, a normal range for mean arterial pressure is 70 to 110 mm Hg. A mean arterial pressure in the high range could be an indication that the heart has to work much harder than it should.
• #### What is SVR heart?

Vascular resistance. Systemic vascular resistance is used in calculations of blood pressure, blood flow, and cardiac function. Vasoconstriction (i.e., decrease in blood vessel diameter) increases SVR, whereas vasodilation (increase in diameter) decreases SVR.
B.

### What is normal cardiac output and cardiac index?

Normal Hemodynamic Parameters
ParameterEquationNormal Range
Cardiac Output (CO)HR x SV/10004.0 – 8.0 l/min
Cardiac Index (CI)CO/BSA2.5 – 4.0 l/min/m2
Stroke Volume (SV)CO/HR x 100060 – 100 ml/beat
Stroke Volume Index (SVI)CI/HR x 100033 – 47 ml/m2/beat
• #### What is the normal BPM?

For adults 18 and older, a normal resting heart rate is between 60 and 100 beats per minute (bpm), depending on the person's physical condition and age. For children ages 6 to 15, the normal resting heart rate is between 70 and 100 bpm, according to the AHA.
• #### What is the cardiac reserve?

Cardiac reserve refers to the difference between the rate at which the heart pumps blood and its maximum capacity for pumping blood at any given time. A measurement of the cardiac reserve may be a health indicator for some medical condition.
• #### What is the difference in stroke volume and cardiac output?

Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped out of the heart (ventricles) to the body per minute, and stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped out of your heart with each heartbeat. Stroke volume = 60-70 ml/heartbeat and cardiac output = 3-5 liters per minute.
C.

### What is a good cardiac output?

The amount of blood put out by the left ventricle of the heart in one contraction is called the stroke volume. The stroke volume and the heart rate determine the cardiac output. A normal adult has a cardiac output of 4.7 liters (5 quarts) of blood per minute.
• #### How many liters of blood does the heart pump in a minute?

The heart beats 70 times a minute, with each beat the heart pumps 60 to 90 mililiters (2 to 3 ounces) of blood out of the heart. It can move 5 to 7 liters of blood in one minute and 7600 liters (2000 gallons) per day. In a lifetime, it beats over 2.5 billion times and pumps over 200 million liters of blood.
• #### What causes stroke volume to increase?

Prolonged aerobic exercise training may also increase stroke volume, which frequently results in a lower (resting) heart rate. Reduced heart rate prolongs ventricular diastole (filling), increasing end-diastolic volume, and ultimately allowing more blood to be ejected.
• #### What is SVR heart?

Vascular resistance. Systemic vascular resistance is used in calculations of blood pressure, blood flow, and cardiac function. Vasoconstriction (i.e., decrease in blood vessel diameter) increases SVR, whereas vasodilation (increase in diameter) decreases SVR.

Updated: 4th December 2019