Exposure occurs through either direct or indirect contact. Direct transmission occurs when a pathogen. a living microorganism such as a bacterium or fungus. is transmitted directly from an infected individual to you.
What is the mode of transmission of the virus?
Influenza virus transmission. Influenza virus may be transmitted among humans in three ways: (1) by direct contact with infected individuals; (2) by contact with contaminated objects (called fomites, such as toys, doorknobs); and (3) by inhalation of virus-laden aerosols.
What are the six modes of transmission for communicable disease?
Figure 1.19. Description: The chain of infection has 3 main parts. A reservoir such as a human and an agent such as an amoeba. The mode of transmission can include direct contact, droplets, a vector such as a mosquito, a vehicle such as food, or the airborne route.
In contact spread, the susceptible person has contact with the infected source or reservoir and the contact is either direct, indirect or by droplets. This occurs when organisms from an infected host or other reservoir are transmitted to a susceptible host via an inanimate object.
Crucial factors for the spread of communicable diseases include the infective agent, the source of infection, the mode of transmission and the host - the so- called 'chain of infection'. An infective agent is a microorganism (e.g. bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasite) that will cause an infection.
A method of transmission is the movement or the transmission of pathogens from a reservoir to a susceptible host. Once a pathogen has exited the reservoir, it needs a mode of transmission to the host through a portal of entry. Transmission can be by direct or indirect contact or through airborne transmission.
Fecal-oral transmission route. The bacteria that cause typhoid fever spread through contaminated food or water and occasionally through direct contact with someone who is infected. In developing nations, where typhoid fever is endemic, most cases result from contaminated drinking water and poor sanitation.
M. tuberculosis is carried in airborne particles, called droplet nuclei, of 1– 5 microns in diameter. Infectious droplet nuclei are generated when persons who have pulmonary or laryngeal TB disease cough, sneeze, shout, or sing. TB is spread from person to person through the air.
Transmission mode refers to the mechanism of transferring of data between two devices connected over a network. It is also called Communication Mode. These modes direct the direction of flow of information. There are three types of transmission modes.
Transmission of the Dengue Virus. Dengue is transmitted between people by the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which are found throughout the world. Insects that transmit disease are vectors. Symptoms of infection usually begin 4 – 7 days after the mosquito bite and typically last 3 – 10 days.
How these diseases spread depends on the specific disease or infectious agent. Some ways in which communicable diseases spread are by: physical contact with an infected person, such as through touch (staphylococcus), sexual intercourse (gonorrhea, HIV), fecal/oral transmission (hepatitis A), or droplets (influenza, TB)
Droplet transmission occurs when bacteria or viruses travel on relatively large respiratory droplets that people sneeze, cough, drip, or exhale. They travel only short distances before settling, usually less than 3 feet. These droplets are loaded with infectious particles.
There are several ways disease-causing agents get from one person to another:
- Airborne or droplet infection (e.g. colds, flu).
- Animal borne or insect borne infection (e.g. rabies, malaria, Lyme Disease).
- Blood borne infection (e.g. HIV, hepatitis).
- Food borne or water borne infection (e.g. salmonella, giardia).
The hepatitis B virus is spread when blood, semen, or other body fluid infected with the hepatitis B virus enters the body of a person who is not infected. Birth (spread from an infected mother to her baby during birth) Sex with an infected partner. Sharing needles, syringes, or drug preparation equipment.
Infectious diseases are commonly transmitted through direct person-to-person contact. Transmission occurs when an infected person touches or exchanges body fluids with someone else. This can happen before an infected person is aware of the illness. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can be transmitted this way.
It is generally accepted that respiratory viruses, such as those which cause the common cold and flu, are spread from person to person by aerosol transmission due to sneezing and coughing. Rubbing either the nasal mucosa or the eyes with virus-contaminated hands can cause infection.
Mode of Transmission: Malaria is transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. Transfusion of blood from infected persons and use of contaminated needles and syringes are other potential modes of transmission. Congenital transmission of malaria may also occur.
Vehicle-borne transmission: In this situation, a vehicle—that is, an inanimate object or material called in scientific terms a “fomite”, becomes contaminated with the infectious agent. The agent, such as a virus, may or may not have multiplied or developed in or on the vehicle. The vehicle contacts the person's body.
How is leprosy transmitted? Researchers suggest that M. leprae are spread person to person by nasal secretions or droplets. However, the disease is not highly contagious like the flu. They speculate that infected droplets reach other peoples' nasal passages and begin the infection there.
Hand washing is the single most effective way to prevent the spread of infections. You can spread certain "germs" (a general term for microbes like viruses and bacteria) casually by touching another person.
A cough or a sneeze can release millions of microbes into the air in droplets of mucus or saliva which can then infect somebody else if they breathe in the infected particles. Transmission by food. Chicken skin from a retail package contaminated with bacteria; some of the bacteria are Salmonella.
These are diseases caused by microorganisms that are spread by person-to-person contact or indirect contact with contaminated objects.
- Conjunctivitis (Pink-eye)
- Creutzfeldt-Jacob (CJD)
- Ebola Virus Disease.
- Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth disease)
- Pediculosis (Head lice)
Vibrio cholerae is the causative agent responsible for cholera. It is a bean-shaped bacterium with a long tail that it uses for self-propulsion. The bacteria are transmitted between humans through the fecal-oral route; a bite of contaminated food or a sip of contaminated water can cause infection.