Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living things. All known cellular life and some viruses contain DNA. The main role of DNA in the cell is the long-term storage of information.
Proteins form the structure of our bodies, as well playing an important role in the processes that keep us alive. Genes are made of a chemical called DNA, which is short for 'deoxyribonucleic acid'. The DNA molecule is a double helix: that is, two long, thin strands twisted around each other like a spiral staircase.
A gene is the basic physical and functional unit of heredity. Genes, which are made up of DNA, act as instructions to make molecules called proteins. In humans, genes vary in size from a few hundred DNA bases to more than 2 million bases.
The three basic steps of DNA extraction are 1) lysis, 2) precipitation, and 3) purification.
- Step 1: Lysis. In this step, the cell and the nucleus are broken open to release the DNA inside and there are two ways to do this.
- Step 2: Precipitation.
- Step 3: Purification.
The cell reads the DNA code in groups of three bases. Each triplet of bases, also called a codon, specifies which amino acid? will be added next during protein synthesis. There are 20 different amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins.
A lysis buffer is a buffer solution used for the purpose of breaking open cells for use in molecular biology experiments that analyze the compounds of the cells (e.g. western blot). Most lysis buffers contain salts (e.g. Tris-HCl or EDTA) to regulate the acidity and osmolarity of the lysate.
DNA is an ideal molecule to transfer genetic messages to every cell of your body. Some of the cells in your body are still dividing, for example to produce new skin or blood cells. Most of the time a cell divides perfectly and each of the DNA molecules is copied exactly, with one copy going to each of the new cells.
The Function of Chromosomes. Chromosomes are the thread-like structure found in the nuclei of both animal and plant cells. They are made of protein and one molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
DNA Biological Functions. DNA is vital for all living beings – even plants. It is important for inheritance, coding for proteins and the genetic instruction guide for life and its processes. DNA holds the instructions for an organism's or each cell's development and reproduction and ultimately death.
They do most of the work in cells and are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. Proteins are made up of hundreds or thousands of smaller units called amino acids, which are attached to one another in long chains.
One of these active processes is protein synthesis, a universal function where RNA molecules direct the assembly of proteins on ribosomes. This process uses transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules to deliver amino acids to the ribosome, where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) then links amino acids together to form proteins.
The two DNA strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group.
Surprisingly, while the DNA molecule is very long, it is stunningly simple. DNA looks like an incredibly long twisted ladder. This shape is called a double helix. The sides of the ladder are a linked chain of alternating sugar and phosphate molecules.
The main function of RNA is to carry information of amino acid sequence from the genes to where proteins are assembled on ribosomes in the cytoplasm. This is done by messenger RNA (mRNA). A single strand of DNA is the blueprint for the mRNA which is transcribed from that DNA strand.
The first of these steps is the one that utilizes DNA and it's called transcription, which is the process of using DNA to create messenger RNA, also simply called mRNA. This mRNA is a molecule that carries DNA's coded instructions for making a protein.
The monomers of DNA are called "Nucleotides".They are made up of a 5-carbon sugar(deoxyribose),a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base bound to the sugar . Adenine makes two bonds with Thyamine whereas Cytosine makes three bonds with Guanine.
Human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 chromosomes in total). Each chromosome is formed by 2 strands of DNA that hydrogen-bonded to each other make the classic DNA double helix (double-stranded DNA). So, in total there are 46*2=92 strands of DNA in each diploid human cell!
Base pairs occur when nitrogenous bases make hydrogen bonds with each other. Each base has a specific partner: guanine with cytosine, adenine with thymine (in DNA) or adenine with uracil (in RNA). The hydrogen bonds are weak, allowing DNA to 'unzip'.
DNA is made up of molecules called nucleotides. Each nucleotide contains a phosphate group, a sugar group and a nitrogen base. The four types of nitrogen bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). The order of these bases is what determines DNA's instructions, or genetic code.
Structurally, DNA and RNA are nearly identical. As mentioned earlier, however, there are three fundamental differences that account for the very different functions of the two molecules. RNA has a ribose sugar instead of a deoxyribose sugar like DNA. RNA nucleotides have a uracil base instead of thymine.