28th November 2019

quora

10

# What is the difference between factored and Unfactored load?

A

**factored load**is a**load**multiplied by a certain**factor**designated by codes of practice to drermine the strength of a structural members such as reinforced concrete. Whereas the**unfactored loads**are used to meet the elastic or linear limit state (below the yield limit) of structural members.What is allowable stress design?

Permissible

**stress design**(in USA construction more commonly called**allowable stress design**) is a**design**philosophy used by civil engineers. The designer ensures that the**stresses**developed in a structure due to service loads do not exceed the elastic limit.What is allowable strength?

The

**allowable stress**or**allowable strength**is the maximum**stress**(tensile, compressive or bending) that is allowed to be applied on a structural material. The**allowable**stresses are generally defined by building codes, and for steel, and aluminum is a fraction of their yield**stress**(**strength**):1

## What is allowable strength?

The

**allowable stress**or**allowable strength**is the maximum**stress**(tensile, compressive or bending) that is allowed to be applied on a structural material. The**allowable**stresses are generally defined by building codes, and for steel, and aluminum is a fraction of their yield**stress**(**strength**):2

## What is a factored moment?

Answered Sep 4, 2015. In order to make our structure safe we underestimate the actual strength/capacity of material and overestimate the actual load coming on the structure. This overestimated load or

**moment**multiplied by some partial safety**factor**is known as**factored**load/**moment**.3

## What is the meaning of axial load?

An

**Axial load**is a force administered along the lines of an axis.**Axial loading**occurs when an object is loaded so that the force is normal to the axis that is fixed, as seen in the figure. Taking statics into consideration the force at the wall should be equal to the force that is applied to the part.4

## What is the design load?

In a general sense, the

**design load**is the maximum amount of something a system is designed to handle or the maximum amount of something that the system can produce, which are very different meanings. For example, a crane with a**design load**of 20 tons is designed to be able to lift**loads**that weigh 20 tons or less.5

## What is allowable stress design?

Permissible

**stress design**(in USA construction more commonly called**allowable stress design**) is a**design**philosophy used by civil engineers. The designer ensures that the**stresses**developed in a structure due to service loads do not exceed the elastic limit.6

## What is the service load?

The

**service load**is the best estimate of the actual**load**that a concrete member may be called on to support. The current way, Ultimate Strength. The design**load**is the**service load**increased by specified**load**factors in order to provide a factor of safety. Traditional Examples:**Service Load**= Dead**Load**+ Live**Load**.7

## What is load and resistance factor design?

Limit state

**design**(LSD), also known as**load and resistance factor design**(**LRFD**), refers to a**design**method used in structural engineering. The method of limit state**design**, developed in the USSR and based on research led by Professor N.S.8

## What is factored load in structural design?

A method of proportioning

**structural**members such that the computed forces produced in the mem- bers by**factored loads**do not exceed the member**design**strength [also called “**load**and resistance**factor design**” (LRFD)]. The term “strength**design**” is used in the**design**of concrete and masonry**structural**elements.9

## What is characteristic load and strength?

value used is termed as “

**Characteristic Strength**or Resistance” and. “**Characteristic Load**”.**Characteristic**resistance of a material (such as Concrete or Steel) is. defined as that value of resistance below which not more than a prescribed. percentage of test results may be expected to fall.10

## What is meant by ultimate load method?

**Ultimate Load Method**. This is also known as

**load**factor

**method**or

**ultimate**strength

**method**. In this we make use of the nonlinear region of stress strain curves of steel and concrete. The safety is ensured by introducing

**load**factor. “

**Load**factor is the ratio of

**ultimate**strength to the service

**loads**”

11

## What do you mean by characteristic load?

Buildings will be subject to

**loads**from various sources. In some cases structures may be subject to other**loads**, such as those due to earthquakes or pressures from retained material. The expected maximum magnitude of each is referred to as the**characteristic load**.12

## What do you mean by modular ratio?

**Modular ratio**is the

**ratio**of Youngs Modulii of Elasticity of two different materials in constructin by composite materials.e.g. in a composite bar consisting of two different materials, one having Young's modulus E1 and other having Young's modulus E2, then

**modular ratio**is given by E1/E2.

13

## What is the use of partial safety factor?

**Factors**of

**safety**(FoS), also known as (and used interchangeably with)

**safety factor**(SF), is a term describing the load carrying capacity of a system beyond the expected or actual loads. Essentially, the

**factor**of

**safety**is how much stronger the system is than it usually needs to be for an intended load.

14

## What is the serviceability limit state?

It refers to conditions other than the building strength that render the buildings unusable.

**Serviceability limit state**design of structures includes factors such as durability, overall stability, fire resistance, deflection, cracking and excessive vibration.15

## What does u l s stand for?

What does ULS stand for?

Rank Abbr. | Meaning |
---|---|

ULS | Use Less Stuff |

ULS | Ultimate Limit State (British steelwork standard) |

ULS | Ultra Low Sulfur (vehicle fuel) |

ULS | Upward-Looking SONAR |

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## What is the ULS log?

The primary mechanism is Unified

**Logging**Service (**ULS**), which writes SharePoint Foundation events to the SharePoint Trace**Log**, and stores them in the file system. (Note:**ULS logs**are also sometimes referred to as Trace**Logs**.)17

## What does factor of safety indicate?

**Factors of safety**(FoS), is also known as (and used interchangeably with)

**safety factor**(SF), is a term describing the load carrying capacity of a system beyond the expected or actual loads. Essentially, the

**factor of safety**is how much stronger the system is than it needs to be for an intended load.

18

## What is ultimate stress?

**Ultimate tensile strength**is measured by the maximum

**stress**that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before breaking. In the study of strength of materials,

**tensile strength**, compressive strength, and shear strength can be analyzed independently.

19

## What is the yield strength of steel?

A36

**steel**has a Poisson's ratio of 0.26, and a shear modulus of 75 GPa (10,900,000 psi). A36**steel**in plates, bars, and shapes with a thickness of less than 8 in (203 mm) has a minimum**yield strength**of 36,000 psi (250 MPa) and ultimate**tensile strength**of 58,000–80,000 psi (400–550 MPa).20

## What is the meaning of working stress?

**Working stress**. Safe

**working stress**is known as the maximum allowable

**stress**that a material or object will be subjected to when in service. This

**stress**is always lower than the Yield

**stress**and the Ultimate Tensile

**Stress**(UTS). The ratio of

**Working Stress**to the Yield

**Stress**or UTS is known as the Factor of safety.