# What is the conjugate depth?

In fluid dynamics, the

**conjugate depths**refer to the**depth**(y_{1}) upstream and the**depth**(y_{2}) downstream of the hydraulic jump whose momentum fluxes are equal for a given discharge (volume flux) q. The**depth**upstream of a hydraulic jump is always supercritical.A.

### What is the Sequent depth?

Conjugate, or

**sequent**,**depths**are the paired**depths**that result upstream and downstream of a hydraulic jump, with the upstream flow being supercritical and downstream flow being subcritical.#### Is momentum conserved in a hydraulic jump?

Although**momentum**is**conserved**throughout the**hydraulic jump**, the energy is not. There is an initial loss of energy when the flow**jumps**from supercritical to subcritical depths. The resulting loss of energy is equal to the change in specific energy across the**jump**and is given by the equation for ΔE below.#### What is a tranquil flow?

Fr = 1, critical**flow**, Fr > 1, supercritical**flow**(fast rapid**flow**), Fr < 1, subcritical**flow**(slow /**tranquil flow**) The Froude number is a measurement of bulk**flow**characteristics such as waves, sand bedforms,**flow**/depth interactions at a cross section or between boulders.#### What is the cavitation number?

The**Cavitation number**(Ca) is a dimensionless**number**used in flow calculations. It expresses the relationship between the difference of a local absolute pressure from the vapor pressure and the kinetic energy per volume, and is used to characterize the potential of the flow to cavitate.

B.

### What is the alternate depth?

Theory and derivation of

**alternate depth**relationship. In the open-channel flow of rectangular channels, the**alternate depth**equation relates the upstream( y_{1}) and downstream( y_{2}) steady-state flow**depths**of a flow that encounters a control device, such as a sluice gate, which conserves energy for a given discharge.#### How is viscosity measured?

**Viscosity**is the**measure**of a substance's resistance to motion under an applied force. The result is typically expressed in centipoise (cP), which is the equivalent of 1 mPa s (millipascal second). Shear stress is the force per unit area required to move one layer of fluid in relation to another.#### How does soap affect the surface tension of water on a penny?

Adding**soap**lowers the**water's surface tension**so the drop becomes weaker and breaks apart sooner. Making**water**molecules stick together less is what helps**soaps**clean dishes and clothes more easily.#### What is the spreading coefficient?

**Spreading coefficient**is a measurement of the ability of one liquid to spontaneously**spread**across another.

Updated: 9th September 2018