What is the bond between sodium and chlorine?
Ionic bonds form when atoms transfer electrons between each other, forming ions that are electrically attracted to each other forming a bond between them. Sodium chloride (NaCl) is a typical ionic compound. The picture below shows both a sodium and a chlorine ion.
They combine as atoms, and separate as ions. When sodium and chlorine atoms come together to form sodium chloride (NaCl), they transfer an electron. The sodium (Na) atom transfers one electron to the chlorine (Cl) atom, so that they both have full outer shells. When this happens, the atom is called a positive ion.
- Recall that most atoms are stable when their outermost ring has eight electrons. (Some atoms, such as lithium and beryllium, are stable when their outermost ring has two electrons.) A. How many electrons will the lithium atom give up to become stable?
- Chlorine is a naturally occurring element with a symbol Cl and atomic number 17. Whereas, Chloride is an ion of chlorine. Chlorine atoms gain one electron to become a chloride ion (Cl−). An ion cannot remain in a free state, and has to combine with another element or elements to form a compound.
- This type of chemical bond is called an ionic bond because the bond formed between two ions of opposite charge. The sodium cation (Na+) and the chlorine anion (Cl-) are attracted to one another to form sodium chloride, or table salt.
When a sodium atom transfers an electron to a chlorine atom, forming a sodium cation (Na+) and a chloride anion (Cl-), both ions have complete valence shells, and are energetically more stable. The reaction is extremely exothermic, producing a bright yellow light and a great deal of heat energy.
- When a sodium atom transfers an electron to a chlorine atom, forming a sodium cation (Na+) and a chloride anion (Cl-), both ions have complete valence shells, and are energetically more stable. The reaction is extremely exothermic, producing a bright yellow light and a great deal of heat energy.
- The reaction between chlorine and other elements can often be vigorous. For example, chlorine reacts explosively with hydrogen to form hydrogen chloride: Chlorine does not burn but, like oxygen, it helps other substances bum.
- In order to balance Na + Cl2 = NaCl you'll need to make sure the number of Na and Cl atoms are the same on both sides of the chemical equation. You do that by changing the coefficients (the numbers in front of atoms or compounds). First, be sure to count all of Na and Cl atoms on each side of the chemical equation.
The sodium atom and the chlorine atom want to make their outside shells contain only eight electrons. The sodium atom wants to lose an electron and the chlorine atom wants to gain an electron. When the two atoms come together the electron from the sodium atom jumps into the gap in the outer shell of the chlorine atom.
- Calcium atoms will lose two electrons in order to achieve the noble gas configuration of argon. A neutral calcium atom has 20 electrons, while a calcium atom that has lost two electrons will have 18 electrons, and a neutral argon atom also has 18 electrons.
- It would need to gain 7 electrons to form an octet. Hydrogen and helium are the only 2 atoms that need 2 electrons in their outer shell to make it full.
It would be much easier for the Na to lose an electron. It's oxidation number is +1.
- So for the element of BERYLLIUM, you already know that the atomic number tells you the number of electrons. That means there are 4 electrons in a beryllium atom. Looking at the picture, you can see there are two electrons in shell one and two in shell two.
Updated: 4th December 2019