What is Sulphation?
A “sulphated” battery is one which has been left standing in a discharged condition or undercharged to the point where abnormal lead sulphate has formed on the plates. When this occurs the chemical reactions within the battery are impeded and loss of capacity results. CAUSES.
A battery regenerator is a device that restores capacity to lead-acid batteries, extending their effective lifespan. They are also known as desulphators, reconditioners or pulse conditioning devices.
- The continuous linear alkylbenzene (LAB) sulphonation process is widely applied for the production of the corresponding sulphonic acid (LABSA), a commodity used in the manufacture of domestic and industrial detergents.
- Nitration and sulfonation of benzene are two examples of electrophilic aromatic substitution. The nitronium ion (NO2+) and sulfur trioxide (SO3) are the electrophiles and individually react with benzene to give nitrobenzene and benzenesulfonic acid respectively.
- Friedel-Crafts Acylation is an important reaction to form several biological compounds, including DNA. Friedel-Crafts Acylation reacts a Lewis Acid, AlCl3 , with an acyl halogen to form an acylium ion. This acylium ion is very electrophilic, so the extra electrons from an aromatic compound can stabilize it.
In addition, the sulfate portion (of the lead sulfate) is not returned to the electrolyte as sulfuric acid. It is believed that large crystals physically block the electrolyte from entering the pores of the plates. Sulfation can be avoided if the battery is fully recharged immediately after a discharge cycle.
- The actual resting voltage, or the voltage a battery will settle at 12-24 hours after being removed from the charger, is closer to 2.1 volts per cell, or about 6.4 volts for a 6v battery, and 12.7 volts for a 12v battery. These numbers assume 100% healthy cells, and may vary a bit lower for older batteries.
- Constant Voltage A constant voltage charger is basically a DC power supply which in its simplest form may consist of a step down transformer from the mains with a rectifier to provide the DC voltage to charge the battery. Such simple designs are often found in cheap car battery chargers.
- The electrochemical cells which generate an electric current are called voltaic cells or galvanic cells and the other ones are called electrolytic cells which are used to drive chemical reactions like electrolysis. A common example of an galvanic cells is a standard 1.5 - volt cell meant for consumer use.
Sulfation, a build-up of lead sulfate crystals, is the number one cause of early failures of lead-acid, sealed AGM or flooded (wet cell-filler caps) batteries. A sulfated battery can lead to: loss of cranking power. longer charging times.
- Once a car battery has been drained below a state of full discharge, the damage has been done. All you can do is check the electrolyte and put it on a trickle charger. It's also hard on an alternator to do that, since they aren't designed to charge batteries from a state of full discharge.
- Now a battery's amp-hour capacity diminishes as the amperage draw increases, so you're looking at more realistically between 4 and 7 hours.
In terms of how long until you can't start the car, assuming the car battery is fully charged probably 45 to 90 minutes.
- Daytime running lights (DRLs) come on automatically whenever a vehicle's engine is started. They substantially increase the visibility of cars and other vehicles. In many countries, headlights are compulsory only in the dark. But DRLs are designed to be on during the day too.
Updated: 3rd October 2019