What is secreted by alpha cells?
Alpha cells (more commonly alpha-cells or α-cells) are endocrine cells in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas. They make up to 20% of the human islet cells synthesizing and secreting the peptide hormone glucagon, which elevates the glucose levels in the blood.
Exocrine Secretions of the Pancreas. Pancreatic juice is composed of two secretory products critical to proper digestion: digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The enzymes are synthesized and secreted from the exocrine acinar cells, whereas bicarbonate is secreted from the epithelial cells lining small pancreatic ducts.
- Ductal cells of the pancreas. Ductal cells of the pancreas form the epithelial lining of the branched tubes that deliver enzymes produced by pancreatic acinar cells into the duodenum. In addition, these cells secrete bicarbonate that neutralizes stomach acidity.
- Acinar cells are the exocrine (exo=outward) cells of the pancreas that produce and transport enzymes that are passed into the duodenum where they assist in the digestion of food.
- In anatomy, an acinus is a round cluster of cells, usually epithelial cells, that looks somewhat like a knobby berry. The word "acinus" means "berry" in Latin. (The plural is "acini".) There are also acini, round clusters of epithelial cells, in the salivary glands and in the pancreas.
It's a terminology used in cardiotocogram (its a machine which monitors fetal heart rate and contractions during labour). Late decelerations are significant since they indicate uteroplacental insufficiency(meaning fetus in uterus is not getting enough blood from placenta, fetus is in a hypoxic state).
- Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP) is a 36 amino acid peptide produced and secreted by PP cells (originally termed F cells) of the pancreas which are primarily located in the Islets of Langerhans. It is part of a family of peptides that also includes Peptide YY (PYY) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY).
- In anatomy, the G cell (or γ-cell) is a type of cell in the stomach and duodenum that secretes gastrin. It works in conjunction with gastric chief cells and parietal cells. G cells are found deep within the pyloric glands of the stomach antrum, and occasionally in the pancreas and duodenum.
- Somatostatin from the hypothalamus inhibits the pituitary gland's secretion of growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone. In addition, somatostatin is produced in the pancreas and inhibits the secretion of other pancreatic hormones such as insulin and glucagon.
The primary function of a beta cell is to store and release insulin. Insulin is a hormone that brings about effects which reduce blood glucose concentration. Beta cells can respond quickly to spikes in blood glucose concentrations by secreting some of their stored insulin while simultaneously producing more.
- This process is called glycogenolysis. Liver cells, or hepatocytes, have glucagon receptors which allow for glucagon to attach to them and thus stimulate glycogenolysis. Contrary to insulin, which is produced by pancreatic β-cells, glucagon is produced by pancreatic α-cells.
- A person with diabetes being injected with insulin to regulate their blood sugar levels. Insulin is a hormone made by an organ located behind the stomach called the pancreas. There are specialised areas within the pancreas called islets of langerhans (the term insulin comes from the Latin insula that means island).
- Homeostasis of blood glucose is maintained by hormone secretion from the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Glucose stimulates insulin secretion from beta-cells but suppresses the release of glucagon, a hormone that raises blood glucose, from alpha-cells.
Updated: 3rd October 2019