Risk not ruled out: Animal reproduction studies have shown an adverse effect on the fetus and there are no adequate and well-controlled studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.
Pregnancy: Category C Drugs You Should Avoid
|Category A||The safest drugs to take during pregnancy. No known adverse reactions.|
|Category B||No risks have been found in humans.|
|Category C||Not enough research has been done to determine if these drugs are safe.|
|Category D||Adverse reactions have been found in humans.|
Class A drugs include: heroin (diamorphine), cocaine (including crack), methadone, ecstasy (MDMA), LSD, and magic mushrooms. • Class B includes: amphetamines, barbiturates, codeine, cannabis, cathinones (including mephedrone) and synthetic cannabinoids. •
Relative Risk of Human Teratogenic Risk Associated with Antibiotic Use in Pregnancy and Lactation
|Antibiotic||Teratogenicity risk/data available||FDA Pregnancy Category|
Risk Factors (A, B, C, D, X) have been assigned to all drugs, based on the level of risk the drug poses to the fetus. Risk Factors are designed to help the reader quickly classify a drug for use during pregnancy. They do not refer to breast-feeding risk. The definitions used for the Risk Factors are presented below.
There are questions about the safety of taking antidepressants when you are pregnant. But research is showing that many antidepressants, especially the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and older medications, are generally safe. Birth defects and other problems are possible. But the risk is very low.
Doxylamine succinate and pyridoxine hydrochloride known as Diclegis is the only Pregnancy Category A, FDA-approved prescription for morning sickness. This anti-nausea medication provides a safer alternative to pregnant women experiencing nausea and vomiting.
If you're still suffering -- and if your allergies disrupt your sleep or ability to work -- talk to your doctor about which medications are right for you. Antihistamines like Chlor-Trimeton and Benadryl are safe for pregnant women to take (as are the less-sedating Claritin and Zyrtec).
Many allergy drugs may be fine to keep taking during pregnancy, but have the discussion so you can have peace of mind. Oral antihistamines, like cetirizine (Zyrtec), chlorpheniramine (Chlor-Trimeton), diphenhydramine (Benadryl), fexofenadine (Allegra), and loratadine (Claritin) seem to be safe.
Safe Medications to Take While Pregnant
- Safe to take: Regular and extra-strength Tylenol (acetaminophen)
- Safe to take: Metamucil, Colace, Citracel, Milk of Magnesia, Dulcolax.
- Safe to take: Tums, Maalox, Mylanta, Pepcid.
- Safe to take: Penicillin.
- Safe to take: Monistat, Gynelotrimin.
The issue at hand is that Zofran is not an FDA approved medication for use in pregnant women experiencing morning sickness. Taking Zofran, or ondansetron, for morning sickness carries unknown risks to the health of the fetus due to the lack of safety trials conducted.
10 OTC drugs to avoid during pregnancy
|Chlorphen-iramine||Chlor-Trimeton; Combination products: Advil Allergy & Congestion Relief; Alka-Seltzer Plus Cold Formula; Dristan Cold|
|Nicotine||Cigarettes and all other forms of tobacco; Nicorette gum; Nicoderm CQ patches|
The different drug types include the following:
- Depressants. Drugs that suppress or slow the activity of the brain and nerves, acting directly on the central nervous system to create a calming or sedating effect.
- New psychoactive substances (NPS).
Definition of Controlled Substance Schedules. Drugs and other substances that are considered controlled substances under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) are divided into five schedules. An updated and complete list of the schedules is published annually in Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.)
However, whether a drug is acidic or basic, most absorption occurs in the small intestine because the surface area is larger and membranes are more permeable (see Oral Administration).
Common Cold Medicine and Pregnancy: The Safe List
- Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
- Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
- Pseudoephedrine (Sudafed)
- Loratadine (Claritin)
- Zinc lozenges.
- Chloraseptic spray (but a salt water gargle is just as effective, with no risks)
In general, it typically takes approximately 30 minutes for most medications to dissolve. When a medication is coated in a special coating – which may help protect the drug from stomach acids – often times it may take longer for the therapeutic to reach the bloodstream.
Factors affecting Absorption of Drugs
- Lipid water solubility. Lipid water solubility coefficient is the ratio of dissolution of drug in lipid as compared to water.
- Molecular size. Smaller the molecular size of the drug, rapid is the absorption.
- Particle size.
- Degree of Ionization.
- Physical Forms.
- Chemical Nature.
- Dosage Forms.
Gastrointestinal prokinetic agents increase the rate of gastric emptying and also upper intestinal motility. These effects would be expected to increase the initial rate of absorption of orally administered drugs, but reduce total bioavailability of the agents.
In pharmacology (and more specifically pharmacokinetics), absorption is the movement of a drug from the site of administration to bloodstream. Absorption involves several phases. The fastest route of absorption is inhalation, and not as mistakenly considered the intravenous administration.