# What is normal cardiac output and cardiac index?

Normal Hemodynamic Parameters
ParameterEquationNormal Range
Cardiac Output (CO)HR x SV/10004.0 – 8.0 l/min
Cardiac Index (CI)CO/BSA2.5 – 4.0 l/min/m2
Stroke Volume (SV)CO/HR x 100060 – 100 ml/beat
Stroke Volume Index (SVI)CI/HR x 100033 – 47 ml/m2/beat
A.

### What is the normal cardiac index?

Cardiac index (CI) is a haemodynamic parameter that relates the cardiac output (CO) from left ventricle in one minute to body surface area (BSA), thus relating heart performance to the size of the individual. The unit of measurement is litres per minute per square metre (L/min/m2).
• #### How is cardiac index calculated?

The stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped by the heart with each beat, according to the Cardiovascular Physioloty Concepts website. Proceed to calculate cardiac index using the following formula: Cardiac output (mL/min) / body surface area (m2) = cardiac index (mL/min/m2).
• #### What is the normal stroke volume?

Its value is obtained by subtracting end-systolic volume (ESV) from end-diastolic volume (EDV) for a given ventricle. In a healthy 70-kg man, ESV is approximately 50 mL and EDV is approximately 120mL, giving a difference of 70 mL for the stroke volume.
• #### What is SVR heart?

Vascular resistance. Systemic vascular resistance is used in calculations of blood pressure, blood flow, and cardiac function. Vasoconstriction (i.e., decrease in blood vessel diameter) increases SVR, whereas vasodilation (increase in diameter) decreases SVR.
B.

### What is the normal range for SVV?

Normal SVV values are less than 10-15% on controlled mechanical ventilation. The figures below demonstrate using SVV as a guide for volume resuscitation with a goal SVV of <13%. SVV increased to 19% with a stroke volume (SV) of 43 ml/beat, blood and saline were given to obtain a SVV of 6% and a SV of 58 ml/beat.
• #### What is SVR heart?

Vascular resistance. Systemic vascular resistance is used in calculations of blood pressure, blood flow, and cardiac function. Vasoconstriction (i.e., decrease in blood vessel diameter) increases SVR, whereas vasodilation (increase in diameter) decreases SVR.
• #### How can you increase your cardiac output?

Your heart can also increase its stroke volume by pumping more forcefully or increasing the amount of blood that fills the left ventricle before it pumps. Generally speaking, your heart beats both faster and stronger to increase cardiac output during exercise.
• #### What is hemodynamic parameters?

Hemodynamics or hæmodynamics is the dynamics of blood flow. The circulatory system is controlled by homeostatic mechanisms, much as hydraulic circuits are controlled by control systems. Hemodynamic response continuously monitors and adjusts to conditions in the body and its environment.
C.

### What is a good cardiac output?

The amount of blood put out by the left ventricle of the heart in one contraction is called the stroke volume. The stroke volume and the heart rate determine the cardiac output. A normal adult has a cardiac output of 4.7 liters (5 quarts) of blood per minute.
• #### How many liters of blood does the heart pump in a minute?

The heart beats 70 times a minute, with each beat the heart pumps 60 to 90 mililiters (2 to 3 ounces) of blood out of the heart. It can move 5 to 7 liters of blood in one minute and 7600 liters (2000 gallons) per day. In a lifetime, it beats over 2.5 billion times and pumps over 200 million liters of blood.
• #### What is the cardiac cycle?

The cardiac cycle is the sequence of events that occur when the heart beats. The cycle has two main phases: diastole, when the heart ventricles are relaxed, and systole, when the ventricles contract. One cardiac cycle is defined as the contraction of the two atria followed by contraction of the two ventricles.
• #### What is the ejection fraction?

Ejection fraction is a measurement of the percentage of blood leaving your heart each time it contracts. During each heartbeat pumping cycle, the heart contracts and relaxes. When your heart contracts, it ejects blood from the two pumping chambers (ventricles). When your heart relaxes, the ventricles refill with blood.

Updated: 4th December 2019