Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a substance produced by the prostate gland. Elevated PSA levels may indicate prostate cancer, a noncancerous condition such as prostatitis, or an enlarged prostate. Men with prostate cancer often have PSA levels higher than four, although cancer is a possibility at any PSA level.
Herein, what causes PSA levels to be high?
In addition to prostate cancer, a number of benign (not cancerous) conditions can cause a man's PSA level to rise. The most frequent benign prostate conditions that cause an elevation in PSA level are prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (enlargement of the prostate).
Inherited mutations in this gene might let abnormal cells live longer than they should, which can lead to an increased risk of prostate cancer. BRCA1 and BRCA2: These tumor suppressor genes normally help repair mistakes in a cell's DNA (or cause the cell to die if the mistake can't be fixed).
Gleason score is calculated from grade as described in the text. The Gleason grading system is used to help evaluate the prognosis of men with prostate cancer using samples from a prostate biopsy.
Males: When total PSA is in the range of 4.0-10.0 ng/mL, a free:total PSA ratio < or =0.10 indicates 49% to 65% risk of prostate cancer depending on age; a free:total PSA ratio >0.25 indicates a 9% to 16% risk of prostate cancer, depending on age.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) — also called prostate gland enlargement — is a common condition as men get older. An enlarged prostate gland can cause uncomfortable urinary symptoms, such as blocking the flow of urine out of the bladder. It can also cause bladder, urinary tract or kidney problems.
People with chronic illnesses may decide against surgery if hernias are not incarcerated or strangulated. Men who have extreme difficulty urinating because of an enlarged prostate should have the prostate problem fixed before having hernia repair surgery.
An enlarged prostate means the gland has grown bigger. Prostate enlargement happens to almost all men as they get older. An enlarged prostate is often called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It is not cancer, and it does not raise your risk for prostate cancer.
In the past, most doctors considered PSA levels of 4.0 ng/mL and lower as normal. Therefore, if a man had a PSA level above 4.0 ng/mL, doctors would often recommend a prostate biopsy to determine whether prostate cancer was present.
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a substance made by cells in the prostate gland (both normal cells and cancer cells). PSA is mostly found in semen, but a small amount is also found in the blood. Most men without prostate cancer have PSA levels under 4 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) of blood.
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by prostate gland cells. Elevated levels may indicate prostate cancer, but PSA levels can also be affected by other things, such as enlarged prostate, a urinary tract infection, or recent ejaculation. Keep reading to learn more about why your PSA levels may be high.
Some prostate cancer signs related to urination include:
- Burning or pain during urination.
- Difficulty urinating, or trouble starting and stopping while urinating.
- More frequent urges to urinate at night.
- Loss of bladder control.
- Decreased flow or velocity of urine stream.
- Blood in urine (hematuria)
7. Reduce or avoid foods that harm the prostate.
- Foods that contain acrylamide, such as French fries and potato chips (the two biggest offenders) and doughnuts.
- Sugars and sugary foods.
- Foods rich in saturated fats.
- Excess alcohol.
- Nonfermented soy products such as tofu and edamame, which can raise estrogen levels.
8 Worst Foods For Prostate Health (You Never Want To Eat)
- Red and Processed Meats.
- Dairy and Calcium.
- Canned Foods.
- Saturated Fats.
Thirteen per cent of men over 55 have a PSA level of ≥ 4 ng/ml but this does not automatically mean you have cancer. An elevated level can also be due to other conditions, such as benign enlargement of the prostate (BPH), a urinary tract infection or a prostate infection.
PSA-raising factors. Besides cancer, other conditions that can raise PSA levels include an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH) and an inflamed or infected prostate (prostatitis). Also, PSA levels normally increase with age.
Doctors use the digital rectal exam (DRE) as a relatively simple test to check the prostate. Because the prostate is an internal organ, your doctor cannot look at it directly. But because the prostate lies in front of the rectum, he or she can feel it by inserting a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum.
What Not To Do Before a PSA Test
- Participate in vigorous exercise and activities that stimulate or “jostle” the prostate, such as bike riding, motorcycling, and riding a horse, ATV, or tractor, or getting a prostatic massage for 48 hours before your test.
- Participate in sexual activity that involves ejaculation for 48 hours before your test.
6 Ways To Reduce Your PSA Levels. Eat less meat and more vegetables: Prostate enlargement is affected by hormones – specifically DHT, which promotes inflammation in the prostate. Eat more tomatoes: Eating tomatoes, especially cooked tomatoes, can help lower your PSA and reduce your risk of prostate cancer.
How Curable Is Prostate Cancer? Approximately 90% of all prostate cancers are detected in the local and regional stages, so the cure rate is very high: Nearly 100% of men diagnosed and treated at this stage will be disease-free after five years.
In the meantime, here are seven reasons, besides prostate cancer, your PSA level could be above normal.
- Aging Affects PSA Levels.
- Prostatitis: A Common Problem in Men Under 50.
- Medical Procedures Can Cause PSA to Rise.
- In Men Over 50: BPH May Be the Cause of High PSA.
- High PSA Levels From a Urinary Tract Infection.