What is fracking and what is the purpose of it?
This is the purpose of fracking, which is a technique that fractures the underground rock as a means of increasing the flow. The process of fracturing begins with drilling a well. First the well is drilled vertically, but once the desired depth is reached, the well is then drilled horizontally.
Fracking is being investigated as the cause. According to Bjornerud, this is a problem for oil and gas production since the process has to be done quickly, soon after the fracking fluids have opened up micro-cracks, or the amount of oil and gas that can be extracted rapidly decreases as the cracks progressively shut.
- Fracking is a temporary process that occurs after a well has been drilled and usually takes about 3-5 days per well, making it a brief and crucial part of energy extraction. Sometimes, wells are re-fracked to extend their production, but the energy they produce can last for 20 to 40 years.
- So if fracking has been around for more than 60 years, why has it only recently become controversial? There are two reasons. The first is that until recently, the application of fracking was on conventional, vertical wells. But over the past decade or so, fracking began to be commercially applied to horizontal wells.
- Even though the birth of fracking began in the 1860s, the birth of modern day hydraulic fracturing began in the 1940s. In 1947, Floyd Farris of Stanolind Oil and Gas began a study on the relationship between oil and gas production output, and the amount of pressurized treatment being used on each well.
Risks and Concerns of Fracking
- Contamination of groundwater.
- Methane pollution and its impact on climate change.
- Air pollution impacts.
- Exposure to toxic chemicals.
- Blowouts due to gas explosion.
- Waste disposal.
- Large volume water use in water-deficient regions.
- Fracking-induced earthquakes.
- No. They gave examples where fracking could contaminate water. For instance they state that "Injection of hydraulic fracturing fluids directly into groundwater resources" can cause contamination.
- Workers have been found to be at risk of permanent lung damage caused by exposure to silica fracking sand. Nervous System Impacts: Exposure to these pollutants, such as VOCs and hydrogen sulfide, can cause neurological problems ranging from dizziness and headaches to seizures and loss of consciousness.
- Natural Gas Replaces Coal Power. One of the incredible advantages to fracking is that it can recover both crude oil and natural gas from shale deposits in unprecedented amounts. This has driven down the price of natural gas and made natural gas a more viable solution than coal.
Uses. Hydraulic fracturing is used to increase the rate at which fluids, such as petroleum, water, or natural gas can be recovered from subterranean natural reservoirs. Reservoirs are typically porous sandstones, limestones or dolomite rocks, but also include "unconventional reservoirs" such as shale rock or coal beds.
- Hydraulic fracturing in the United States began in 1949. Vermont, which has no known frackable gas reserves, banned fracking preventatively in May 2012. In March 2017, Maryland became the first state in the US with proven gas reserves to pass a law banning fracking.
- Two states this year passed statewide moratoriums on fracking – New York and Maryland. What's more, the entire country of Scotland has halted fracking projects nationwide, joining Ireland, the Netherlands, and France in the list of countries where this method of fossil fuel extraction is banned.
- It's important to understand that fracking is a small part of a much larger operation to get oil and gas from a mile below the surface into storage tanks for market. Fracking takes about two to three days in what is roughly a 10- to 14-day process of drilling and completing a well.
Updated: 17th October 2019