What is an MPPT charge controller?
MPPT or Maximum Power Point Tracking is algorithm that included in charge controllers used for extracting maximum available power from PV module under certain conditions. The voltage at which PV module can produce maximum power is called 'maximum power point' (or peak power voltage).
Generally, there is no need for a charge controller with the small maintenance, or trickle charge panels, such as the 1 to 5-watt panels. A rough rule is that if the panel puts out about 2 watts or less for each 50 battery amp-hours, then you don't need one.
- The photons (light particles) produce an electrical current as they strike the surface of the thin silicon wafers. A single solar cell produces only about 1/2 (.5) of a volt. However, a typical 12 volt panel about 25 inches by 54 inches will contain 36 cells wired in series to produce about 17 volts peak output.
- Generally, there is no need for a charge controller with the small maintenance, or trickle charge panels, such as the 1 to 5-watt panels. A rough rule is that if the panel puts out about 2 watts or less for each 50 battery amp-hours, then you don't need one.
- Solar battery lifespan. The general range for a solar battery's useful lifespan is between 5 and 15 years. If you install a solar battery today, you will likely need to replace it at least once to match the 25 to 30 year lifespan of your PV system.
A charge controller, charge regulator or battery regulator limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. It prevents overcharging and may protect against overvoltage, which can reduce battery performance or lifespan, and may pose a safety risk.
- A solar inverter is one of the most important elements of the solar electric power system. It converts the variable direct current (DC) output of a photovoltaic (PV) solar panel into alternating 240V current (AC). This AC electricity then can be fed into your home to operate your appliances.
- Types of Batteries
- NICKEL CADMIUM BATTERIES. The active components of a rechargeable NiCd battery in the charged state consist of nickel hydroxide (NiOOH) in the positive electrode and cadmium (Cd) in the negative electrode.
- NICKEL METAL HYDRIDE BATTERIES.
- LITHIUM ION BATTERIES.
- SMALL SEALED LEAD ACID BATTERIES.
- After the testing was completed the following results were recorded: The Duracell battery lasted the longest, 101 hours and 20 minutes; Energizer battery, second, 99 hours and 17 minutes; Eveready battery, third, 28 hours and 30 minutes, and last but not least was the BA 30 batteries, 25 hours ad 58 minutes.
When a 12V solar panel is rated at 100W, that is an instantaneous rating, if all of the test conditions are met, when you measure the output, the voltage will be about 18 volts and the current will be 5.55 amps. Since watts equals volts times amps, 18 volts x 5.55 amps = 100 watts.
- This means that a battery has a 100 A.H. capacity if it is discharged over 20 hours, or at about 5 Amps-per-hour (100 A.H. / 20 hours = 5 Amps DC). However, this same battery would last only one hour if the discharge rate was 50 Amps-per-hour (50 Amps DC x 1 hour = 50 A.H.) because of the high rate of discharge.
- How many solar panels will you need? To make up a 5kW solar system, you need 20 solar panels, assuming you use 250W panels. Each panel will be about 1.6m x 1m, so you'll need at least 32m² of roof space.
- Assuming You have a typical full size auto battery, it is about 50 amp hours. To Calculate how much time You'll need to charge the battery with a 15 Watt solar charger You'll need: Calculate the Ampere per hour of the charger: 15 Watts /12 Volts = 1,25 Amperes.
Updated: 21st October 2019