What is an example of an illness that requires airborne precautions?
Diseases requiring airborne precautions include, but are not limited to: Measles, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Varicella (chickenpox), and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Airborne precautions apply to patients known or suspected to be infected with microorganisms transmitted by airborne droplet nuclei.
Usually, the droplets can only travel about three feet. Examples of droplet precaution illnesses include whooping cough and influenza. If you are treating a patient in droplet precautions you need to wear a mask, gown and gloves.
- PPE can be considered in the following categories, based on the type of protection afforded by the equipment:
- Respiratory protection - for example, disposable, cartridge, air line, half or full face.
- Eye protection – for example, spectacles/goggles, shields, visors.
- Hearing protection – for example, ear muffs and plugs.
- The three categories of Transmission-Based Precautions include:
- Contact Precautions.
- Droplet Precautions.
- Airborne Precautions.
- Droplet transmission involves contact of the conjunctivae or the mucous membranes of the nose or mouth of a susceptible person with large-particle droplets (larger than 5 μm in size) containing microorganisms generated from a person who has a clinical disease or is a carrier of the disease.
There are three different types of transmission precautions: Contact Precautions—used for infections, diseases, or germs that are spread by touching the patient or items in the room (examples: MRSA, VRE, diarrheal illnesses, open wounds, RSV).
- Some examples of pre-zygotic barriers include temporal isolation, ecological isolation, behavioral isolation, and mechanical isolation. With temporal isolation, the two species never come into contact with each other because they are not active at the same time, or they have different mating seasons.
- A droplet is something that you might sneeze out, and it is somewhat larger. A flu virus may be on a droplet, and it might spread as far as the droplet goes, a few feet in distance. An airborne transmission means that it is carried much farther on much smaller particles.
- By Executive Order of the President, federal isolation and quarantine are authorized for these communicable diseases:
- Infectious tuberculosis.
- Yellow fever.
- Viral hemorrhagic fevers (like Ebola)
- Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
Updated: 4th December 2019