2nd October 2019
What is an electrical circuit and how does it work?
A battery or other power source gives the force (voltage) that makes the electrons move. When the electrons get to a device like a light bulb, your computer, or a refrigerator, they give it the power to make it work. The word “circuit” sounds like “circle,” and a circuit needs to be circular to work.
What is meant by a simple circuit?
An electric circuit is a path in which electrons from a voltage or current source flow. The point where those electrons enter an electrical circuit is called the "source" of electrons.
There are two types of circuit we can make, called series and parallel. The components in a circuit are joined by wires.
These are the most common components:
- Integrated Circuits.
A circuit diagram (electrical diagram, elementary diagram, electronic schematic) is a graphical representation of an electrical circuit. A drawing meant to depict the physical arrangement of the wires and the components they connect is called artwork or layout, physical design, or wiring diagram.
The direction of an electric current is by convention the direction in which a positive charge would move. Thus, the current in the external circuit is directed away from the positive terminal and toward the negative terminal of the battery. Electrons would actually move through the wires in the opposite direction.
A series circuit is a circuit in which resistors are arranged in a chain, so the current has only one path to take. The current is the same through each resistor.
The purpose of a switch in a series circuit is to make it easy to open or close the electrical circuit, turning the flow of electricity on or off. A light bulb in a series circuit is used to determine whether or not electricity is flowing.
Charge becomes used up as it flows through a circuit. The amount of charge that exits a light bulb is less than the amount that enters the light bulb. Charge flows through circuits at very high speeds.
An ammeter (from Ampere Meter) is a measuring instrument used to measure the current in a circuit. Electric currents are measured in amperes (A), hence the name. Instruments used to measure smaller currents, in the milliampere or microampere range, are designated as milliammeters or microammeters.
A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by excess current from an overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to interrupt current flow after a fault is detected.
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce current flow, adjust signal levels, to divide voltages, bias active elements, and terminate transmission lines, among other uses.
A power supply is a component that supplies power to at least one electric load. Typically, it converts one type of electrical power to another, but it may also convert a a different form of energy – such as solar, mechanical, or chemical - into electrical energy. A power supply provides components with electric power.
A conductor is something which allows electric current to flow through it freely whereas an insulator prevents any electric current flowing through it. the conductors can pass electricity through them due to free electrons present in them. for example: iron, copper, aluminium etc.
An ammeter is a current tester that measures electrical current in automotive applications. Sometimes called a clamp-on meter, a clamp meter measures electrical current without touching or interrupting the circuit. Current clamps and current probes are attachments for electrical testing devices that measure current.
closed circuit. An electric circuit through which current can flow in an uninterrupted path. Compare open circuit. A television system in which the signal is usually sent by cable to a limited number of receivers.
A closed path through which an electric current flows or may flow. ♦ Circuits in which a power source is connected to two or more components (such as light bulbs, or logic gates in a computer circuit), one after the other, are called series circuits.
A common type of short circuit occurs when the positive and negative terminals of a battery are connected with a low-resistance conductor, like a wire. With a low resistance in the connection, a high current will flow, causing the delivery of a large amount of energy in a short period of time.
This is why a battery in an open circuit can only pump a certain amount of electrons. As it pumps electrons they generate a reverse voltage that opposes the battery. The answer is YES, it is possible for current to flow in an open circuit. The only requirement is that the current be "alternating" current.
A Parallel circuit has certain characteristics and basic rules: A parallel circuit has two or more paths for current to flow through. Voltage is the same across each component of the parallel circuit. The sum of the currents through each path is equal to the total current that flows from the source.
1. Static electricity is caused by the build up of electrical charges on the surface of objects, while current electricity is a phenomenon from the flow of electrons along a conductor. 2. When objects are rubbed, a loss and/or gain of electrons occurs, which results in the phenomenon of static electricity.
When appliances are connected in a parallel arrangement, each of them can be put on and off independently. This is a feature that is essential in a house's wiring. Also, if the appliances were wired in series, the potential difference across each appliance would vary depending on the resistance of the appliance.