What is an adenine molecule made of?
DNA is made up of six smaller molecules -- a five carbon sugar called deoxyribose, a phosphate molecule and four different nitrogenous bases (adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine).
Adenine is one of the two purine nucleobases (the other being guanine) used in forming nucleotides of the nucleic acids. In DNA, adenine binds to thymine via two hydrogen bonds to assist in stabilizing the nucleic acid structures. In RNA, which is used for protein synthesis, adenine binds to uracil.
- Adenine helps to stabilize the nucleic acid portion of these molecules. Additionally, adenine is found in adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a molecule that carries the energy needed for work in cells. Adenine is a molecule made of carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen atoms. Its chemical formula is C5H5N5.
- As its alternate name (5-methyluracil) suggests, thymine may be derived by methylation of uracil at the 5th carbon. In RNA, thymine is replaced with uracil in most cases. In DNA, thymine (T) binds to adenine (A) via two hydrogen bonds, thereby stabilizing the nucleic acid structures.
- DNA is made up of molecules called nucleotides. Each nucleotide contains a phosphate group, a sugar group and a nitrogen base. The four types of nitrogen bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine (C). The order of these bases is what determines DNA's instructions, or genetic code.
Guanine. (Science: biochemistry molecular biology) A purine base found in dna and RNA; pairs with cytosine.One of the four bases, one of the constituent bases of nucleic acids, nucleosides and nucleotides.
- Thymine, which is often abbreviated to T or Thy, can also be referred to as 5-methyluracil. It is one of the pyrimidine bases found in the nucleic acid of DNA, along with adenine, guanine and cytosine (A, G and C). These bases are the building blocks of DNA and life form on earth.
- Hence it's the acidic part of the molecule that dominates, and that is why we know DNA as an acid. DNA is made of three types of molecules in equal proportions - basic nucleotides, sugar deoxyribose and acidic phosphate groups. The bases are on the inside of the helix and partly hidden from the outside.
- Definition. noun, plural: helicases. An enzyme that utilizes energy from nucleoside triphosphate (e.g. ATP) hydrolysis in order to unwind the two annealed nucleic acid strands (e.g. DNA) Supplement. DNA is a helical, double-stranded molecule that bears the genetic code.
Adenine is a purine with a variety of roles in biochemistry, in the form of both the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate and the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide, and protein synthesis, as a chemical component of DNA and RNA.
- Photograph 51 is the nickname given to an X-ray diffraction image of crystallized DNA taken by Raymond Gosling in May 1952, working as a PhD student under the supervision of Rosalind Franklin, at King's College London in Sir John Randall's group. It was critical evidence in identifying the structure of DNA.
- Ribonucleic acid, or RNA is one of the three major biological macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life (along with DNA and proteins). A central tenet of molecular biology states that the flow of genetic information in a cell is from DNA through RNA to proteins: “DNA makes RNA makes protein”.
- Just as proteins consist of long chains of amino acids, DNA and RNA consists of nucleic acid chains called nucleotides. Nucleotides are composed of three units: base, sugar (monosaccharide) and phosphate. Bases are found in both DNA and RNA. As seen below, they are adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine, and uracil.
Updated: 4th November 2019