Light Rail Molding. Light Rail Molding is used to finish the bottom of wall cabinets. It can function as a trim to conceal under-cabinet lighting fixtures and provide a barrier from the light glare, or simply serve as a decorative enhancement.
An explanation of sound waves. The pitch of a sound is dictated by the frequency of the sound wave, while the loudness is dictated by the amplitude. When a drum is beaten, the air particles around the drum skin vibrate in the form of a compression wave.
The violin is the smallest and highest pitched instrument in the string family. The viola is a little larger and deeper in sound. The cello is much larger than the viola and produces a rich, mellow tone. The Double Bass is the largest member of the string family and has a very deep tone.
The Woodwind Family. The instruments in this family all used to be made of wood, which gives them their name. The woodwind family of instruments includes, from the highest sounding instruments to the lowest, the piccolo, flute, oboe, English horn, clarinet, E-flat clarinet, bass clarinet, bassoon and contrabassoon.
|INSTRUMENT||WRITTEN RANGE (C4=middle C)||SOUNDING (transposition) than written|
|Piccolo||D4-C7||C: 1 octave higher Db: minor 9th higher|
|Flute(in C) or Querfloete||C4-D7|
|Alto Flute(in G)||C4-C7||a Perfect 4th lower|
It is the highest pitched of the brass instruments. Normally two or three are used in a symphonic orchestra for that reason. The tone of the tuba is much deeper than the trumpet due to the large size of the instrument and its tubing system.
A piccolo, for example, typically has a sounding range one octave higher than its written range. The designated range is the set of notes the player should or can achieve while playing. All instruments have a designated range, and all pitched instruments have a playing range.
The strings are the largest family of instruments in the orchestra and they come in four sizes: the violin, which is the smallest, viola, cello, and the biggest, the double bass, sometimes called the contrabass. (Bass is pronounced "base," as in "baseball.")
There are five main woodwind instruments: flute, oboe, clarinet, saxophone, and bassoon. Each of these instruments also come in different versions: The flute has a small version called the piccolo which plays an octave higher. It is the highest instrument in the orchestra.
The saxophone is a wind instrument with a reed and the body is made of brass, and so it forms a bridge between the woodwind and brass sections of the orchestra. It has a single reed and a conical bore. At one time, there were two distinct schools of saxophone playing: the classical, and the jazz or popular.
(Depends on the orchestra.) If it is a concerto or solo piece like the Debussy Rhapsodie, it will be a guest soloist. Vaughan Williams' 9th Symphony uses 3 saxophones, all usually clarinet players doubling on sax.
Conically shaped, the saxophone is the only woodwind instrument made of brass. Although it is found only occasionally in the symphony orchestra, it is considered a member of the woodwind family because it has a single reed like the clarinet.
What are Brass Instruments?
- Trumpet. This ancient brass instrument dates back to the 15th century, and has the highest register in the brass family.
- French Horn.
- Baritone Horns.
This family includes all of the modern brass instruments except the trombone: the trumpet, horn (also called French horn), euphonium, and tuba, as well as the cornet, flugelhorn, tenor horn (alto horn), baritone horn, sousaphone, and the mellophone.
The Four Families of the Orchestra. To start, we can break the instruments into four families. Each family is grouped by the way the instrument produces vibration. This kind of classification gives us the string family, the woodwind family, the brass family and the percussion family.