What does T pair with in RNA?
The base pairing of guanine (G) and cytosine (C) is just the same in DNA and RNA. So in RNA the important base pairs are: adenine (A) pairs with uracil (U); guanine (G) pairs with cytosine (C).
The mRNA formed will be complimentary to the DNA strand. Replace the C with G, G with C, A with U, T with A. this mRNA is sandwiched between the ribosomal sub units, and the long process of translation takes place. Now you need to know that 1 amino acid = 3 base pairs = 1 codon.
- Base Pairing in DNA. The nitrogen bases form the double-strand of DNA through weak hydrogen bonds. The nitrogen bases, however, have specific shapes and hydrogen bond properties so that guanine and cytosine only bond with each other, while adenine and thymine also bond exclusively.
- Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) associates with a set of proteins to form ribosomes. These complex structures, which physically move along an mRNA molecule, catalyze the assembly of amino acids into protein chains. They also bind tRNAs and various accessory molecules necessary for protein synthesis.
- Translation occurs in a structure called the ribosome, which is a factory for the synthesis of proteins. Translation of an mRNA molecule by the ribosome occurs in three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. During initiation, the small ribosomal subunit binds to the start of the mRNA sequence.
DNA (or deoxyribonucleic acid) is the molecule that carries the genetic information in all cellular forms of life and some viruses. It belongs to a class of molecules called the nucleic acids, which are polynucleotides - that is, long chains of nucleotides.
- Messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules carry the coding sequences for protein synthesis and are called transcripts; ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecules form the core of a cell's ribosomes (the structures in which protein synthesis takes place); and transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules carry amino acids to the ribosomes during protein
- Also, RNA nucleotides contain ribose sugars while DNA contains deoxyribose and RNA uses predominantly uracil instead of thymine present in DNA. This base is also a pyrimidine and is very similar to thymine. Uracil is energetically less expensive to produce than thymine, which may account for its use in RNA.
- 1) DNA often exists as a double stranded molecule and RNA as a single stranded molecule. 2) DNA contains thymine and RNA contains uracil. 3) DNA is most often used to store genetic information, while RNA serves a host of functions. 4) The sugar found in DNA contains one less oxygen molecule than the sugar found in RNA.
RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) is synthesized in the nucleus and is very similar to DNA. The synthesis of RNA also involves the use of bases, but in RNA synthesis no thymine (T) is used but uracil (U) is used instead. The synthesis of RNA from DNA is called transcription (the DNA is transcribed into RNA).
- Translation is the process that takes the information passed from DNA as messenger RNA and turns it into a series of amino acids bound together with peptide bonds. It is essentially a translation from one code (nucleotide sequence) to another code (amino acid sequence).
- The RNA to which the information is transcribed is messenger RNA (mRNA). The process associated with RNA polymerase is to unwind the DNA and build a strand of mRNA by placing on the growing mRNA molecule the base complementary to that on the template strand of the DNA.
- Those genes are copied and made into proteins. The process during which the gene is copied into its messenger is called Transcription . Remember, the DNA has to be turned into RNA in order leave the nucleus. DNA can't leave the nucleus because it always has to be protected since it carries our genes.
Updated: 21st November 2019