A

**bending moment**is the reaction induced in a structural element when an external force or**moment**is applied to the element causing the element to**bend**. The most common or simplest structural element subjected to**bending moments**is the beam. Beams can also have one end fixed and one end simply supported.1

## Why is there no moment at a hinge?

There is, however, no resistance towards any rotation within the supports, which means that there is no resisting

**moment**on these points. As a result, the bending**moment**at simply and roller end supports in a beam are**zero**in this case, unlike in a fixed support where rotation is totally prevented.2

## What is point of Contraflexure in beams?

In a bending beam, a

**point**is known as a**point of contraflexure**if it is a location at which no bending occurs. In a bending moment diagram, it is the**point**at which the bending moment curve intersects with the zero line. In other words where the bending moment changes its sign from negative to positive or vice versa.3

## What is meant by pure bending?

**Pure bending**is a condition of stress where a

**bending**moment is applied to a beam without the simultaneous presence of axial, shear, or torsional forces.

**Pure bending**occurs only under a constant

**bending**moment (M) since the shear force (V), which is equal to , has to be equal to zero.

4

## What is a one way slab?

BASIC DIFFERENCE BETWEEN

**ONE WAY SLAB**AND TWO**WAY SLAB**: 1. In**one way slab**the**slabs**are supported by the beams on the two opposite sides. In two**way slab**the**slabs**are supported on all the four sides . In**one way slab**the ratio of Longer span to shorter span is equal or greater than 2.5

## What is meant by twisting moment?

Torsion is the

**twisting**of a beam under the action of a torque (**twisting moment**). It is systematically applied to screws, nuts, axles, drive shafts etc, and is also generated more randomly under service conditions in car bodies, boat hulls, aircraft fuselages, bridges, springs and many other structures and components.6

## What is a cantilever beam?

A

**cantilever**is a**beam**anchored at only one end. The**beam**carries the. load to the support where it is forced against by a moment and shear stress.**Cantilever**construction allows for overhanging structures without external bracing.**Cantilevers**can also be constructed with trusses or slabs.7

## What is the moment of the force?

The turning effect of a

**force**is known as the**moment**. It is the product of the**force**multiplied by the perpendicular distance from the line of action of the**force**to the pivot or point where the object will turn.8

## What is bending moment of inertia?

"Area

**Moment of Inertia**" is a property of shape that is used to predict deflection,**bending**and stress in beams. "Polar**Moment of Inertia**" as a measure of a beam's ability to resist torsion - which is required to calculate the twist of a beam subjected to torque.9

## What is the bending stress?

**Bending stress**is the normal

**stress**that is induced at a point in a body subjected to loads that cause it to bend. When a load is applied perpendicular to the length of a beam (with two supports on each end),

**bending**moments are induced in the beam.

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## What do you mean by Moment of resistance?

Definition : The

**moment of resistance**of the concrete section is the**moment**of couple formed by the total tensile force (T) in the steel acting at the centre of gravity of reinforcement and the total compressive force (C) in the concrete acting at the centre of gravity (c.g.) of the compressive stress diagram.11

## What is positive bending moment?

**Positive Bending Moment**. Simply supported beam loaded from the top. In a more strict sense,

**positive bending**is a sagging beam.

**Positive bending**is whenever the beam tends to sag downwards.

**Negative bending**bows upwards - called hogging.

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## What is the force of torsion?

**Torsion**occurs when an object, such as a bar with a cylindrical or square cross section (as shown in the figure), is twisted. The twisting

**force**acting on the object is known as torque, and the resulting stress is known as Shear stress.

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## What is the unit of moment of inertia?

The amount of torque needed to cause any given angular acceleration (the rate of change in angular velocity) is proportional to the moment of inertia of the body. Moment of inertia may be expressed in units of

**kilogram meter**squared (kg. m^{2}) in SI units and pound-**foot**-**second**squared (lb.14

## What is meant by an axial force?

If the load on a structure is applied through the center of gravity of its cross section, it is called an

**axial**load or that would be**force**applied to the lengthwise centerline of an object.**Axial force**is the compression or tension**force**of the member.15

## What do you mean by simply supported beam?

A

**simply supported beam**is a type of**beam**that has pinned**support**at one end and roller**support**at the other end. Depending on the load applied, it undergoes shearing and bending. It is the one of the simplest structural elements in existence.16

## What is the moment in physics?

**Moments**. A

**moment**is the turning effect of a force around a fixed point called a pivot. For example, this could be a door opening around a fixed hinge or a spanner turning around a fixed nut. The size of a

**moment**depends on two factors: the perpendicular distance from the pivot to the line of action of the force.

17

## What is shear in civil engineering?

**Shear**is a directional word referring to forces or stresses. A

**shear**stress within an object will occur when a force parallel to the plane causes one plane of the material to want to slip against another, thus deforming the material.

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## What is the section modulus?

**Section modulus**is a geometric property for a given cross-

**section**used in the design of beams or flexural members. Other geometric properties used in design include area for tension and shear, radius of gyration for compression, and moment of inertia and polar moment of inertia for stiffness.

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## What is the slope of the beam?

Deflection of a

**beam**: The deflection at any point on the axis of the**beam**is the distance between its position before and after loading.**Slope**of a**beam**:**slope**at any section in a deflected**beam**is defined as the angle in radians which the tangent at the section makes with the original axis of the**beam**.