What do psychological theories help us do?
In psychology, theories are used to provide a model for understanding human thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. A psychological theory has two key components: It must describe a behavior. It must make predictions about future behaviors.
The scientific attitude equips us to be curious, skeptical, and humble in scrutinizing competing ideas or our own observations. This attitude carries into everyday life as critical thinking, which puts ideas to the test by examining assumptions, discerning hidden values, evaluating evidence, and assessing conclusions.
- Here are seven of the major perspectives in modern psychology.
- The Psychodynamic Perspective.
- The Behavioral Perspective.
- The Cognitive Perspective.
- The Biological Perspective.
- The Cross-Cultural Perspective.
- The Evolutionary Perspective.
- The Humanistic Perspective.
- According to evolutionary psychologists, patterns of behavior have evolved through natural selection, in the same way that physical characteristics have evolved. Because of natural selection, adaptive behaviors, or behaviors that increase reproductive success, are kept and passed on from one generation to the next.
- There are four basic goals of psychology: to describe, explain, predict, and control behavior (Coon, Mitterer, 2013). Although the last goal may sound ominous, it is actually the one the majority of those reading about psychology are most interested in.
Psychology is an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. Psychology also refers to the application of such knowledge to various spheres of human activity, including relating to individuals' daily lives and the treatment of mental illness.
- Freud believed that the key to understanding mind and behavior rested in the unconscious part of the mind; this perspective is known as the psychoanalytic approach. Freud argued that instincts, especially sexual and aggressive impulses, influence our psychology, that is, how we behave, think, and feel.
- Psychology as a self-conscious field of experimental study began in 1879, when Wilhelm Wundt founded the first laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychological research in Leipzig, Germany. Wundt was also the first person to refer to himself as a psychologist.
- Similarly, most colleges and universities have a biology department. It is often located in the school or division of science. In high schools, psychology is considered one of the social studies, occasionally a social science; biology is considered one of the sciences.
Updated: 17th September 2018