What are the nitrogenous bases in RNA?
Nitrogenous base: A molecule that contains nitrogen and has the chemical properties of a base. The nitrogenous bases in DNA are adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T), and cytosine (C). The nitrogenous bases in RNA are the same, with one exception: adenine (A), guanine (G), uracil (U), and cytosine (C).
Cytosine (C) and thymine (T) are the smaller pyrimidines. RNA also contains four different bases. Three of these are the same as in DNA: adenine, guanine, and cytosine. RNA contains uracil (U) instead of thymine (T).
- Structurally, DNA and RNA are nearly identical. As mentioned earlier, however, there are three fundamental differences that account for the very different functions of the two molecules. RNA has a ribose sugar instead of a deoxyribose sugar like DNA. RNA nucleotides have a uracil base instead of thymine.
- Nitrogenous base: A molecule that contains nitrogen and has the chemical properties of a base. The nitrogenous bases in DNA are adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T), and cytosine (C). The nitrogenous bases in RNA are the same, with one exception: adenine (A), guanine (G), uracil (U), and cytosine (C).
- Types of Nitrogenous Bases
- Adenine, abbreviated 'A,' has a 2-ring structure, so that makes it a purine.
- Thymine, abbreviated 'T,' is a pyrimidine, which means it has a 1-ring structure.
- Uracil, abbreviated 'U,' is found in RNA.
- Guanine, abbreviated 'G,' is part of both DNA and RNA, where it bonds with cytosine.
b. a nitrogenous base (def). There are four nitrogenous bases found in RNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, or uracil. Adenine and guanine are known as purine (def) bases while cytosine and uracil are known as pyrimidine bases (def) (see Fig. 3).
- …by a unique sequence, or codon, of three of the four possible base pairs in the DNA (A–T, T–A, G–C, and C–G, the individual letters referring to the four nitrogenous bases adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine).
- The three roles of RNA in protein synthesis. Messenger RNA (mRNA) is translated into protein by the joint action of transfer RNA (tRNA) and the ribosome, which is composed of numerous proteins and two major ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecules.
- Ribose and Deoxyribose. The 5-carbon sugars ribose and deoxyribose are important components of nucleotides, and are found in RNA and DNA, respectively. The sugars found in nucleic acids are pentose sugars; a pentose sugar has five carbon atoms.
The base pairing of guanine (G) and cytosine (C) is just the same in DNA and RNA. So in RNA the important base pairs are: adenine (A) pairs with uracil (U); guanine (G) pairs with cytosine (C).
- - DNA and RNA are made up of monomers called nucleotides. - DNA and RNA both have 3 nitrogenous bases: Adenine, Cytosine and Guanine. - DNA and RNA both have a phosphate groups in their nucleotides. Sometimes called phosphoric acid.
- The sugar-phosphate backbone forms the structural framework of nucleic acids, including DNA and RNA. This backbone is composed of alternating sugar and phosphate groups, and defines directionality of the molecule.
- A set of five nitrogenous bases is used in the construction of nucleotides, which in turn build up the nucleic acids like DNA and RNA. These nitrogenous bases are adenine (A), uracil (U), guanine (G), thymine (T), and cytosine (C).
Updated: 2nd October 2019