What are the isotonic solutions?
That IV is full of saline, a liquid with the same concentration of solutes as your blood cells. Because you want your blood cells to sit in an isotonic solution. An isotonic solution is when two solutions, separated by a semipermeable membrane, have equal concentrations of solutes and water.
When a cell is immersed into a hypertonic solution, the tendency is for water to flow out of the cell in order to balance the concentration of the solutes. Likewise, the cytosol of the cell is conversely categorized as hypotonic, opposite of the outer solution. Hypotonic refers to a lesser concentration.
- A hypertonic solution (pronounced "HĪ-per-TAWN-ik") is a solution with a higher concentration of solute (dissolved substance) than some other, specified solution (and which therefore has a higher osmotic pressure than the other solution). The solution with the lower concentration is then termed hypotonic.
- Plasmolysis is the process in which cells lose water in a hypertonic solution. The reverse process, cytolysis, can occur if the cell is in a hypotonic solution resulting in a lower external osmotic pressure and a net flow of water into the cell.
- Isotonic, Hypotonic, and Hypertonic Solutions. Water moves readily across cell membranes through special protein-lined channels, and if the total concentration of all dissolved solutes is not equal on both sides, there will be net movement of water molecules into or out of the cell.
Blood is isotonic. Hypertonic solutions have less water ( and more solute such as salt or sugar ) than a cell. Tapwater and pure water are hypotonic. A single animal cell ( like a red blood cell) placed in a hypotonic solution will fill up with water and then burst.
- The list of Hypotonic solutions is easy to remember, because it really only includes one true hypotonic solution (plus one “faker”): 0.45% Saline. *5% Dextrose in Water (this is technically isotonic, but once the dextrose is absorbed then it acts on the body as if it were hypotonic)
- This diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane is called osmosis. Similarly, if there is a higher concentration of dissolved salt outside of the cell (a hypertonic environment), then H20 will diffuse "out" from the cell and the cell will dehydrate and shrink and cellular metabolism will cease.
- IV fluid tonicity
0.9% NaCl (normal saline) isotonic 0.45% NaCl hypotonic 2.5% dextrose hypotonic Lactated Ringer's solution isotonic D5W (acts as a hypotonic solution in body) isotonic
IV fluid tonicity
|0.9% NaCl (normal saline)||isotonic|
|Lactated Ringer's solution||isotonic|
|D5W (acts as a hypotonic solution in body)||isotonic|
- Hypertonic solutions
- 3% Saline.
- 5% Saline.
- 10% Dextrose in Water (D10W)
- 5% Dextrose in 0.9% Saline.
- 5% Dextrose in 0.45% saline.
- 5% Dextrose in Lactated Ringer's.
- Hypotonic solutions contain less solute then blood does, which causes water to want to leave the hypotonic solution and enter an area that has a higher concentration of solute via osmosis.
- A hypotonic solution is any solution that has a lower osmotic pressure than another solution. In the biological fields, this generally refers to a solution that has less solute and more water than another solution.
Updated: 3rd October 2019