Pentateuch. means the first five books of the Bible. These books are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. The word Pentateuch comes from two Greek words that mean "five books" or "five scrolls".
Which books were taken out of the Bible?
- Book of Tobit (the Vulgate, and Luther call it "Tobias")
- Book of Judith.
- Book of Wisdom.
- Sirach or Ecclesiasticus.
- 1st & 2nd Maccabees.
Content. The Old Testament contains 39 (Protestant), 46 (Catholic), or more (Orthodox and other) books, divided, very broadly, into the Pentateuch (Torah), the historical books, the "wisdom" books and the prophets.
These books are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. The word Pentateuch comes from two Greek words that mean "five books" or "five scrolls". According to tradition, the books were written by the Israelite leader, Moses. The Pentateuch is often called the Five Books of Moses or the Torah.
The Catholic Church and Eastern Christian churches also hold that certain deuterocanonical books and passages are part of the Old Testament canon. The second part is the New Testament, containing 27 books; the four Canonical gospels, Acts of the Apostles, 21 Epistles or letters and the Book of Revelation.
Sometimes Torah can refer to the written and oral Law. The Hebrew word towrah means "instruction, direction, law". Pentateuch is the Greek, and therefore usually Christian, way of referring to those first five books. In Greek, "Penta" means "five" and "teuchos" means "book, case [for books]".
Other sources are explicitly cited below.
- Joshua. Joshua is one of the "Former Prophets" in the Hebrew Bible, a term which also includes Judges, Samuel, and Kings.
- 1 and 2 Samuel.
- 1 and 2 Kings.
- 1 and 2 Chronicles.
The so-called "Old Testament" is a Christian reference to the Jewish sacred scriptures, referred to by Jews by its acronym as TaNaKh. In the Jewish tradition, this consists of three groups of books: 1) the "Ta" stands for Torah, the first five "Books of Moses" - Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.
The texts were mainly written in Biblical Hebrew, with some portions (notably in Daniel and Ezra) in Biblical Aramaic. Biblical Hebrew, sometimes called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of the Hebrew language. The very first translation of the Hebrew Bible was into Greek.
The 5 sections of the Old Testament
- Law. Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.
- History. Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1&2 Samuel, 1&2 Kings, 1&2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther.
- Poetry and Wisdom books. Job, Psamls, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song od Songs.
- Major Prophets. Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel.
- Minor Prophets.
Common English names that originate from the Old Testament include:
- Masculine: Adam, Daniel, David, Isaac, Jacob, Jeremiah, Jonathan, Joseph, Michael, Noah.
- Feminine: Eve, Leah, Miriam, Rachel, Rebecca, Ruth, Sarah, Sharon.
Now, from early on, of course, we have the four main gospels that we now see in the New Testament; Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, but there were many others that we know existed. There's the Gospel of Peter and the Gospel of Thomas, each of which may go back to a very early tradition.
The Catholic Bible is composed of the 46 books of the Old Testament and the 27 books of the New Testament.
The books of the Old Testament in order from first to last are:
- Genesis (50 Chapters)
- Exodus (40 Chapters)
- Leviticus (27 Chapters)
- Numbers (36 Chapters)
- Deuteronomy (34 Chapters)
- Joshua (24 Chapters)
- Judges (21 Chapters)
- Ruth (4 Chapters)
The famous Dead Sea Scrolls, which contain most of the books of the Hebrew Bible, date to 408 BC to 300 A.D. So the oldest Biblical text we found is about 2700 years old.
(The Bible's Old Testament is thought to have been first written down in an ancient form of Hebrew.) Until now, many scholars have held that the Hebrew Bible originated in the 6th century B.C., because Hebrew writing was thought to stretch back no further.
That is a good question and I will only use the bible to answer your question. The last book of the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament) is Malachi. All of the scriptures (in blue) are taken from Malachi. Malachi was a prophet of Jehovah God.
According to Rabbinic tradition the five books of the Torah were written by Moses, with the exception of the last eight verses of Deuteronomy which describe his death.
Authorship. The Talmud holds that the Torah was written by Moses, with the exception of the last eight verses of Deuteronomy, describing his death and burial, being written by Joshua. Alternatively, Rashi quotes from the Talmud that, "God spoke them, and Moses wrote them with tears".