Here are the five qualitative methods in more detail.
- Ethnography. Ethnographic research is probably the most familiar and applicable type of qualitative method to UX professionals.
- Grounded Theory.
- Case Study.
What does phenomenon mean in qualitative research?
Unlike quantitative research, which is deductive and tends to analyze phenomena in terms of trends and frequencies, qualitative research seeks to determine the meaning of a phenomenon through description. In contrast, qualitative research is described as an action research using observation and interview methods.
TYPES OF VARIABLE. It is useful to distinguish between two broad types of variables: qualitative and quantitative (or numeric). Each is broken down into two sub-types: qualitative data can be ordinal or nominal, and numeric data can be discrete (often, integer) or continuous.
Qualitative Approaches. A qualitative "approach" is a general way of thinking about conducting qualitative research. It describes, either explicitly or implicitly, the purpose of the qualitative research, the role of the researcher(s), the stages of research, and the method of data analysis.
Qualitative data collection methods vary using unstructured or semi-structured techniques. Some common methods include focus groups (group discussions), individual interviews, and participation/observations. The sample size is typically small, and respondents are selected to fulfil a given quota.
Basic Qualitative Research Characteristics. Design is generally based on a social constructivism perspective. Research problems become research questions based on prior research experience. Sample sizes can be as small as one. Data collection involves interview, observation, and/or archival (content) data.
The goal of qualitative phenomenological research is to describe a "lived experience" of a phenomenon. As this is a qualitative analysis of narrative data, methods to analyze its data must be quite different from more traditional or quantitative methods of research.
Definition. Quantitative methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques.
There are four main types of Quantitative research: Descriptive, Correlational, Causal-Comparative/Quasi-Experimental, and Experimental Research. Descriptive research seeks to describe the current status of an identified variable.
Whereas quantitative studies strive for random sampling, qualitative studies often use purposeful or criterion-based sampling, that is, a sample that has the characteristics relevant to the research question(s). The goal of qualitative research can be stated as “in-depth understanding.”
Grounded Theory is an inductive methodology. Although many call Grounded Theory a qualitative method, it is not. It is a general method. It is the systematic generation of theory from systematic research. It is a set of rigorous research procedures leading to the emergence of conceptual categories.
It is an approach to psychological subject matter that has its roots in the philosophical work of Edmund Husserl. Early phenomenologists such as Husserl, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty conducted philosophical investigations of consciousness in the early 20th century.
Quantitative research focuses more on the ability to complete statistical analysis. With quantitative studies, each respondent is asked to respond to the same questions: Surveys and questionnaires are the most common technique for collecting quantitative data.
Quantitative research designs are either descriptive (subjects usually measured once) or experimental (subjects measured before and after a treatment). A descriptive study establishes only associations between variables. An experiment establishes causality.
Grounded theory (GT) is a systematic methodology in the social sciences involving the construction of theory through methodic gathering and analysis of data. A study using grounded theory is likely to begin with a question, or even just with the collection of qualitative data.
Content analysis is a widely used qualitative research technique. Rather than being a single method, current applications of content analysis show three distinct approaches: conventional, directed, or summative. In conventional content analysis, coding categories are derived directly from the text data.
The design of a study defines the study type (descriptive, correlation, semi-experimental, experimental, review, meta-analytic) and sub-type (e.g., descriptive-longitudinal case study), research problem, hypotheses, independent and dependent variables, experimental design, and, if applicable, data collection methods
Narrative research is a term that subsumes a group of approaches that in turn rely on the written or spoken words or visual representation of individuals. These approaches typically focus on the lives of individuals as told through their own stories. Narrative research is set out by the validation of the audience.
What is Ethnographic Research? Anthropologists, ethnographers, and other social scientists may engage in something called ethnography. Ethnography, simply stated, is the study of people in their own environment through the use of methods such as participant observation and face-to-face interviewing.
Tip #509: Directions for Writing a Narrative Case Study. A narrative case study is a story of a real life problem or situation that provides sufficient background data so that the problem can be analyzed and solved. A good case study is written in the form of a story.
Rigor in qualitative research is defined by quite the opposite set of criteria and is associated with being open to the data, scrupulously adhering to a specific philosophical perspective, and thoroughness in collecting data.
Narrative Analysis. Definition. Narratives or stories occur when one or more speakers engage in sharing and recounting an experience or event. Typically, the telling of a story occupies multiple turns in the course of a conversation and stories or narratives may share common structural features.