A routing protocol such as RIP, EIGRP, OSPF, etc is one that shares routing information with one another for the purposes of routing packets through the network. A routed protocol is one in which it provides the layer 3 addressing needed for the routing protocols to be able to forward packets to those addresses.
What are Layer 3 routing protocols?
Although there are many types of routing protocols, three major classes are in widespread use on IP networks: Interior gateway protocols type 1, link-state routing protocols, such as OSPF and IS-IS. Interior gateway protocols type 2, distance-vector routing protocols, such as Routing Information Protocol, RIPv2, IGRP.
Within the Internet, an autonomous system (AS) is a collection of connected Internet Protocol (IP) routing prefixes under the control of one or more network operators on behalf of a single administrative entity or domain that presents a common, clearly defined routing policy to the Internet.
TCP is a reliable stream delivery service which guarantees that all bytes received will be identical with bytes sent and in the correct order. Since packet transfer by many networks is not reliable, a technique known as positive acknowledgement with re-transmission is used to guarantee reliability.
“Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is a standardized exterior gateway protocol designed to exchange routing and reachability information between autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet. The protocol is often classified as a path vector protocol but is sometimes also classed as a distance-vector routing protocol.”
Distance Vector Routing Definition. Distance vector routing is a simple routing protocol used in packet-switched networks that utilizes distance to decide the best packet forwarding path. A hop is the trip that a packet takes from one router to another as it traverses a network on the way to its destination.
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) is a Layer 2 protocol that runs on bridges and switches. The specification for STP is IEEE 802.1D. The main purpose of STP is to ensure that you do not create loops when you have redundant paths in your network.
A routing protocol is a set of processes, algorithms, and messages that are used to exchange routing information and populate the routing table with the routing protocol's choice of best paths. The purpose of dynamic routing protocols includes: Discovery of remote networks.
Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is an advanced distance-vector routing protocol that is used on a computer network for automating routing decisions and configuration. The protocol was designed by Cisco Systems as a proprietary protocol, available only on Cisco routers.
Classless routing protocols are RIPv2, EIGRP, OSPF, IS-IS, and BGP. Dynamic Routing Protocols and Convergence. An important characteristic of a routing protocol is how quickly it converges when there is a change in the topology. Convergence is when the routing tables of all routers are at a state of consistency.
Static routing is a form of routing that occurs when a router uses a manually-configured routing entry, rather than information from a dynamic routing traffic. Unlike dynamic routing, static routes are fixed and do not change if the network is changed or reconfigured.
A Gateway of Last Resort or Default gateway is a route used by the router when no other known route exists to transmit the IP packet. Known routes are present in the routing table. Hence, any route not known by the routing table is forwarded to the default route.
IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) is a networking protocol from Novell that interconnects networks that use Novell's NetWare clients and servers. IPX is a datagram or packet protocol.
The IS-IS (Intermediate System - Intermediate System) protocol is one of a family of IP Routing protocols, and is an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) for the Internet, used to distribute IP routing information throughout a single Autonomous System (AS) in an IP network.
A routing table is a set of rules, often viewed in table format, that is used to determine where data packets traveling over an Internet Protocol (IP) network will be directed. All IP-enabled devices, including routers and switches, use routing tables.
Examples of link-state routing protocols include Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and intermediate system to intermediate system (IS-IS). The link-state protocol is performed by every switching node in the network (i.e., nodes that are prepared to forward packets; in the Internet, these are called routers).
AppleTalk was a proprietary suite of networking protocols developed by Apple Inc. for their Macintosh computers. AppleTalk includes a number of features that allow local area networks to be connected with no prior setup or the need for a centralized router or server of any sort.
A distance-vector routing protocol in data networks determines the best route for data packets based on distance. Distance-vector routing protocols measure the distance by the number of routers a packet has to pass, one router counts as one hop.
Ports used as layer-3 ports will not use STP since it doesn't make sense to use it on a routed link, but the ports used as layer-2 switch ports will have STP. In most layer-3 switches, how a port is used (layer-2 or layer-3) can be changed by configuration.
RIP, IGRP and EIGRP are different routing protocols. RIP stands for Routing Information Protocol; IGRP stands for Interior Gateway Routing Protocol; and EIGRP stands for Enhanced IGRP. The main difference being RIP and IGRP are distance vector protocols; EIGRP is more of link state protocol.
There are three major types of routing protocols.
- Routing Information Protocols(RIP)
- Interior Gateway Protocol (IGRP)
- Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
- Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)
- Enhanced interior gateway routing protocol (EIGRP)
- Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
- Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS)
A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the traffic directing functions on the Internet. A data packet is typically forwarded from one router to another router through the networks that constitute an internetwork until it reaches its destination node.