What are D cells?
It's a terminology used in cardiotocogram (its a machine which monitors fetal heart rate and contractions during labour). Late decelerations are significant since they indicate uteroplacental insufficiency(meaning fetus in uterus is not getting enough blood from placenta, fetus is in a hypoxic state).
Exocrine Secretions of the Pancreas. Pancreatic juice is composed of two secretory products critical to proper digestion: digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The enzymes are synthesized and secreted from the exocrine acinar cells, whereas bicarbonate is secreted from the epithelial cells lining small pancreatic ducts.
- Pancreatic Secretion. There are two types of exocrine secretions produced by the pancreas. Acinar cells produce digestive enzymes: amylase, lipase, and peptidases. Pancreatic peptidases are produced as inactive zymogens that are only activated after they reach the duodenum (see webpage on Zymogens).
- The pancreatic acinar cell is the functional unit of the exocrine pancreas. It synthesizes, stores, and secretes digestive enzymes. Under normal physiological conditions, digestive enzymes are activated only once they have reached the duodenum.
- The LCT gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called lactase. This enzyme helps to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk and other dairy products. Lactase is produced by cells that line the walls of the small intestine.
The primary function of a beta cell is to store and release insulin. Insulin is a hormone that brings about effects which reduce blood glucose concentration. Beta cells can respond quickly to spikes in blood glucose concentrations by secreting some of their stored insulin while simultaneously producing more.
- Pancreatic islets house three major cell types, each of which produces a different endocrine product: Alpha cells (A cells) secrete the hormone glucagon. Beta cells (B cells) produce insulin and are the most abundant of the islet cells.
- A person with diabetes being injected with insulin to regulate their blood sugar levels. Insulin is a hormone made by an organ located behind the stomach called the pancreas. There are specialised areas within the pancreas called islets of langerhans (the term insulin comes from the Latin insula that means island).
- Homeostasis of blood glucose is maintained by hormone secretion from the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Glucose stimulates insulin secretion from beta-cells but suppresses the release of glucagon, a hormone that raises blood glucose, from alpha-cells.
Alpha cells (more commonly alpha-cells or α-cells) are endocrine cells in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas. They make up to 20% of the human islet cells synthesizing and secreting the peptide hormone glucagon, which elevates the glucose levels in the blood.
- Hormones produced in the pancreatic islets are secreted directly into the blood flow by (at least) five types of cells. In rat islets, endocrine cell subsets are distributed as follows: Alpha cells producing glucagon (20% of total islet cells) Beta cells producing insulin and amylin (≈70%)
- are secreted from the glands of the endocrine system, they are specific in that each hormone causes a response in a specific target organ or group of cells, rather than on the body as a whole. Exocrine hormones are secreted via a duct into the blood and usually effect a distant organ or tissue.
- Alpha cells (more commonly alpha-cells or α-cells) are endocrine cells in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas. They make up to 20% of the human islet cells synthesizing and secreting the peptide hormone glucagon, which elevates the glucose levels in the blood.
Updated: 3rd October 2019