Testicular cancer is rare, accounting for about 1% of all male cancers. However, testicular cancer is the most common form of cancer in men ages 15-35. Every year, in the U.S., over 9,000 men are diagnosed with testicular cancer and around 400 die from the disease.
Hereof, what are the main causes of testicular cancer?
Risk factors for testicular cancer
- Undescended testicles (cryptorchidism) Having undescended testicles (cryptorchidism) increases the risk of testicular cancer.
- Abnormal cells in the testicle (carcinoma in situ)
- Fertility problems.
- Previous testicular cancer.
- Family history.
- Inguinal hernia.
- HIV or AIDS.
Seminomas are testicular cancers that grow slowly. They're usually confined to your testes, but your lymph nodes may also be involved. Nonseminomas are the more common form of testicular cancer. This type is faster growing and may spread to other parts of your body.
Yes. It is common for guys to have slightly different size testicles. Usually, the right testicle is larger than the left. Also, one testicle (usually the left) often hangs lower than the other.
This is largely a disease of young and middle-aged men, but about 6% of cases occur in children and teens, and about 8% occur in men over the age of 55. Because testicular cancer usually can be treated successfully, a man's lifetime risk of dying from this cancer is very low: about 1 in 5,000.
What's Normal. On average, testicles are two inches long and about an inch across. It's totally normal for guy's testicles to be different sizes and for one to hang lower and behind the other. In most men the right testicle is slightly bigger and the left hangs lower.
Factors that may increase your risk of testicular cancer include:
- An undescended testicle (cryptorchidism). The testes form in the abdominal area during fetal development and usually descend into the scrotum before birth.
- Abnormal testicle development.
- Family history.
Most other testicular cancers are mixtures of these types of non seminoma:
- embryonal carcinoma.
- yolk sac tumours.
Usually, an enlarged testicle or a small lump or area of hardness are the first signs of testicular cancer. Pain or discomfort, with or without swelling, in a testicle or the scrotum. Change in the way a testicle feels or a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum.
Virtually 100 percent. Even metastatic testicular cancer is highly curable, typically with a combination of chemotherapy and surgery.
Treatment of stage II testicular cancer depends on whether the cancer is a seminoma or a nonseminoma. Treatment of seminoma may include the following: Surgery to remove the testicle, followed by radiation therapy to lymph nodes in the abdomen and pelvis. Combination chemotherapy.
The first and early sign of testicular cancer is most commonly a little ("pea-sized") lump on the testis (painless testicular lump). There may be no real pain, at most just a dull ache in the lower abdomen or groin, perhaps a sensation of dragging and heaviness.
Although testicular cancer is most common among men aged 15–40 years, it has three peaks: infancy through the age of four as teratomas and yolk sac tumors, ages 25–40 years as post-pubertal seminomas and nonseminomas, and from age 60 as spermatocytic seminomas.
For men with cancer that has not spread beyond the testicles (Stage 1; see Stages), the survival rate is 99%. Approximately 68% of men are diagnosed at this stage. For men with cancer that has spread to the lymph nodes in the back of the abdomen, called the retroperitoneal lymph nodes, the survival rate is about 96%.
It found that the inherited risk comes from a large number of minor mutations in DNA code, rather than one faulty gene with a big effect. But the scientists say only 9.1% of the gene mutations that can cause testicular cancer have been discovered so far.
About half of testicular cancers occur in men between the ages of 20 and 34. But this cancer can affect males of any age, including infants and elderly men.
Orchid, a purple/violet color, has long been recognized as the official color for testicular cancer. We believe that this originated as orchid is a derivative of orchis, the ancient Greek word for testicle, and this has been supported by the Orchid male cancer awareness organization in the UK.
Testicular cancer isn't very common — only about 1 in every 263 people with testicles will have it in their lifetime. Most people with testicular cancer are diagnosed in their 20s or 30s, so it usually affects younger people. It's possible to get testicular cancer at a younger or older age, but it's not as common.
Can Testicular Cancer Be Prevented? Many men with testicular cancer have no known risk factors. And some of the known risk factors, such as undescended testicles, white race, and a family history of the disease, can't be changed. For these reasons, it's not possible to prevent most cases of this disease at this time.
They then looked in detail at the genetic code of 6,000 UK men from two previous testicular cancer studies, 986 of whom had been diagnosed with the disease. The combined analysis revealed that 49% of all the possible factors contributing to testicular cancer risk are inherited.
Not all lumps indicate the presence of testicular cancer. Most lumps are caused by benign, or noncancerous, conditions. These usually require no treatment. Still, your doctor should examine any changes in your testicles, especially lumps or swelling.
Stage III testicular cancer has three subcategories: Stage IIIA: These cancers have spread to a distant lymph node or the lungs. Alternatively, they may have spread to other distant organs, such as the liver or the brain, but in this case serum tumor markers can be at any level.