How many plates are found in a typical 12 volt automotive battery?
A twelve-volt battery has six single cells in series producing a fully charged output voltage of 12.6 volts. A battery cell consists of two lead plates a positive plate covered with a paste of lead dioxide and a negative made of sponge lead, with an insulating material (separator) in between.
Sulfation, a build-up of lead sulfate crystals, is the number one cause of early failures of lead-acid, sealed AGM or flooded (wet cell-filler caps) batteries. A sulfated battery can lead to: loss of cranking power. longer charging times.
- This is because of the electronegativity of the heteroatom (N and O). O is more electronegative than N, hence it withdraws electron density to itself more, leaving lower electron density in the ring itself. Hence, I believe furan is less reactive than pyrrole.
- Pyrazole is an aromatic heterocyclic compound characterized by a five membered ring with formula C3H3N2H. The two nitrogen atoms are adjacent and as we saw for imidazole one of them is a "pyrrole-like" nitrogen while the other is a "pyridine-like" nitrogen.
- Caffeine does not contain any stereogenic centers and hence is classified as an achiral molecule. The xanthine core of caffeine contains two fused rings, a pyrimidinedione and imidazole. Therefore, the fused 5,6 ring core of caffeine contains a total of ten pi electrons and hence according to Hückel's rule is aromatic.
Updated: 3rd October 2019