How is a hybrid produced?
hybrid. the offspring of two animals or plants of different breeds, varieties, species, or genera, especially as produced through human manipulation for specific genetic characteristics. a person or group of persons produced by the interaction or crossbreeding of two unlike cultures, traditions, etc.
There are many species hybrids in nature (in ducks, oaks, blackberries, etc.), and, although naturally occurring hybrids between two genera have been noted, most of these latter result from human intervention.
- A male donkey (jack) can be crossed with a female horse to produce a mule. A male horse can be crossed with a female donkey to produce a hinny. Horse-donkey hybrids are almost always sterile because horses have 64 chromosomes whereas donkeys have 62, producing offspring with 63 chromosomes.
- A hinny is the reciprocal cross, a female donkey (jenny/jennet) and a male horse (stallion). Mules have 63 chromosomes, horses have 64 chromosomes, and donkeys have 62 chromosomes. However, there are likely more cases of mules/hinnies reproducing than we know especially in developing countries.
- Hybrid computers are computers that exhibit features of analog computers and Digital computers. The digital component normally serves as the controller and provides logical and numerical operations, while the analog component often serves as a solver of differential equations and other mathematically complex equations.
Extremely rare interfamilial hybrids have been known to occur (such as the guineafowl hybrids). The offspring of an interspecific cross very often are sterile, this hybrid sterility prevents the movement of genes from one species to the other, keeping both species distinct.
- Plant hybrids are the result of sexual reproduction between plants from two different taxa or species. Sterility in plant hybrids is most often the result of polyploidy, which occurs because of abnormal cell division and results in more than two sets of chromosomes in the cells of the hybrid offspring.
- No, this plant is pure-bred for gene B. The genotype of the F1 hybrid offspring is Aa/Bb. The hybrid is heterozygous for both vigor genes. The recessive effects of aa and bb have been complemented in the hybrid by the inheritance of one dominant gene.
- Hybrid breakdown is a type of reproductive failure that appears after the F2 generation of crosses between different species or subspecies. It is caused by incompatibility between interacting genes.
Updated: 21st November 2019