The nucleus of a cell contains chromosomes, which carry genetic information in a long molecule called DNA. Genes are regions of DNA that carry the code to control a particular cell activity or the production of a particular protein.
So, how is the gene in the DNA coded?
The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded in genetic material (DNA or RNA sequences) is translated into proteins (amino acid sequences) by living cells. Those genes that code for proteins are composed of tri-nucleotide units called codons, each coding for a single amino acid.
How does DNA encode genetic information?
This backbone carries four types of molecules called bases and it is the sequence of these four bases that encodes information. The major function of DNA is to encode the sequence of amino acid residues in proteins, using the genetic code.
Genes specify the kinds of proteins that are made by cells, but DNA is not the direct template for protein synthesis. This flow of information is dependent on the genetic code, which defines the relation between the sequence of bases in DNA (or its mRNA transcript) and the sequence of amino acids in a protein.
Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria (where it is called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA). The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T).
The genetic information passed from parent to offspring is contained in genes carried by chromosomes in the nucleus. Sexual reproduction produces offspring that resemble their parents, but are not identical to them. Asexual reproduction produces offspring - clones - which are genetically identical to their parents.
Structure and function are intimately linked. The most important feature of the structure of DNA is that it forms an "anti-parallel" structure. This double helix allows the cell to make two new, identical copies, by reading and copying each strand separately.
The process by which DNA is copied during the cell cycle, a single strand of DNA can serve as a template for a new strand. Every time the order of the bases in preserved so that DNA can be accurately replicated over and over with identical genetic information.
Franklin produced an x-ray photograph that allowed two other researchers, James Watson and Francis Crick to work out the 3D structure of DNA. The structure of DNA was found to be a double helix. In 1962 Crick and Watson, along with Wilkins, received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery.
DNA is made up of molecules called nucleotides. If you think of the double helix structure as a ladder, the phosphate and sugar molecules would be the sides, while the bases would be the rungs. The bases on one strand pair with the bases on another strand: adenine pairs with thymine, and guanine pairs with cytosine.
The point where the double helix is opened up and the DNA is copied is called a replication fork. Once the strands are separated, an enzyme called DNA polymerase copies each strand using the base-pairing rule. The two strands are not exactly copied the same way.
A change in the nucleotide sequence of a DNA molecule. What process produces a new copy of an organism's genetic information, which is passed on to a new cell. The double coiled, "staircase" shape of DNA is called a what? What is the first step of the process of DNA replication?
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living things. All known cellular life and some viruses contain DNA. The main role of DNA in the cell is the long-term storage of information.
Mitosis. Mitosis is used to produce daughter cells that are genetically identical to the parent cells. The cell copies - or 'replicates' - its chromosomes, and then splits the copied chromosomes equally to make sure that each daughter cell has a full set.
Proteins form the structure of our bodies, as well playing an important role in the processes that keep us alive. Genes are made of a chemical called DNA, which is short for 'deoxyribonucleic acid'. The DNA molecule is a double helix: that is, two long, thin strands twisted around each other like a spiral staircase.
Chromosomes are made from DNA. Genes are short sections of DNA. Genetically identical cells are produced by a type of cell division called mitosis. In sexual reproduction, a male gamete fuses with a female gamete to produce a new cell.
DNA stores biological information in sequences of four bases of nucleic acid — adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) and guanine (G) — which are strung along ribbons of sugar- phosphate molecules in the shape of a double helix. Taken as a whole, this package of DNA serves as its owner's complete genetic blueprint.
2.3 Each chromosome has within it, arranged end-to-end, hundreds or thousands of genes (see Figure 3), each with a specific location, consisting of the inherited genetic material known as DNA. Some chromosomes are significantly larger than others, and some are more densely packed with genes.
In prokaryotic cells, the DNA, or genetic material, forms a single large circle that coils up on itself. The DNA is located in the main part of the cell. Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus. Instead, their genetic material is located in the main part of the cell.
An organism's DNA affects how it looks, how it behaves, and its physiology. So a change in an organism's DNA can cause changes in all aspects of its life. Mutations are essential to evolution; they are the raw material of genetic variation. Without mutation, evolution could not occur.
DNA testing plays an important role in research. The word 'DNA' stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is essential to the proper functioning of human cells. In fact, DNA is actually referred to as the blueprint or the foundation which holds the information required for encoding the proteins and other cell components.