How does DNA carry genetic information?
The nucleus of a cell contains chromosomes, which carry genetic information in a long molecule called DNA. Genes are regions of DNA that carry the code to control a particular cell activity or the production of a particular protein.
The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded in genetic material (DNA or RNA sequences) is translated into proteins (amino acid sequences) by living cells. Those genes that code for proteins are composed of tri-nucleotide units called codons, each coding for a single amino acid.
- The cell reads the DNA code in groups of three bases. Each triplet of bases, also called a codon, specifies which amino acid? will be added next during protein synthesis. There are 20 different amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins.
- Genetic Code. stored on one of the two strands of a DNA molecules as a linear, non-overlapping sequence of the nitrogenous bases Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C) and Thymine (T).
- Codons are three consecutive bases that responds to a single amino acid, found in mRNA, while anticodons are the three unpaired bases that a tRNA molecule has. The genetic code is considered universal because all organisms use the same genetic codes, DNA and RNA.
This backbone carries four types of molecules called bases and it is the sequence of these four bases that encodes information. The major function of DNA is to encode the sequence of amino acid residues in proteins, using the genetic code.
- double helix
- This backbone carries four types of molecules called bases and it is the sequence of these four bases that encodes information. The major function of DNA is to encode the sequence of amino acid residues in proteins, using the genetic code.
- Proteins form the structure of our bodies, as well playing an important role in the processes that keep us alive. Genes are made of a chemical called DNA, which is short for 'deoxyribonucleic acid'. The DNA molecule is a double helix: that is, two long, thin strands twisted around each other like a spiral staircase.
Updated: 4th December 2019