How does an object become charged?
Positive and negative charges. Objects can be positively charged, negatively charged or neutral (no charge). A substance that gains electrons becomes negatively charged, while a substance that loses electrons becomes positively charged. Atoms or molecules that become charged are ions.
Methods. There are three ways to charge an object: friction, conduction and induction. Friction involves rubbing on material with another, resulting in electrons moving from one surface to another.
- That is easy if you are charging an insulator, but if you want to charge a metal object you need to mount it on an insulator as metals conduct electricity. Then you can charge the object. To do this you need to add or remove electrons to/from the objet. You can easily do this by rubbing it with a dielectric material.
- There are a variety of methods to charge an object. One method is known as induction. In the induction process, a charged object is brought near but not touched to a neutral conducting object. The presence of a charged object near a neutral conductor will force (or induce) electrons within the conductor to move.
- Grounding is the process of removing the excess charge on an object by means of the transfer of electrons between it and another object of substantial size. When a charged object is grounded, the excess charge is balanced by the transfer of electrons between the charged object and a ground.
When that happens,the atom is in a normal or neutral state. An entire atom becomes electrically charged when the number of electrons or protons stops being equal. The "extra" electron or proton isn't balanced by something inside the atom anymore and begins to be attracted to the protons or electrons in other atoms.
- Positive and negative charges. Objects can be positively charged, negatively charged or neutral (no charge). A substance that gains electrons becomes negatively charged, while a substance that loses electrons becomes positively charged. Atoms or molecules that become charged are ions.
- The phenomenon of static electricity requires a separation of positive and negative charges. When two materials are in contact, electrons may move from one material to the other, which leaves an excess of positive charge on one material, and an equal negative charge on the other.
- The first property is that same charges/objects repel and opposite charges/objects attract. This means that two positive charges or two negative charges will repel each other. A positive charge and a negative charge will attract each other. A neutral object will attract both a positive and a negative charge.
Updated: 2nd October 2019