How do you do in text citations APA?
APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005). For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Field, 2005, p. 14). For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers, use a paragraph number.
Cite any interview according to the last name of the interviewee for in-text citations. You do not need a page number for interview citations. For example: (Swift). Back up the in-text citation with a corresponding entry in the bibliography.
- Because a personal interview does not constitute recoverable data, it should not be included in an APA reference list. Instead a personal interview should be referenced as a parenthetical citation. For example: (J. Smith, personal communication, May 17, 2008).
- To cite a film or video found on a website, use the following structure: Last name, First name of the creator. “Title of the film or video.” Title of the website, role of contributors and their First name Last name, Version, Numbers, Publisher, Publication date, URL.
- Parenthetical citations are citations to original sources that appear in the text of your paper. This allows the reader to see immediately where your information comes from, and it saves you the trouble of having to make footnotes or endnotes.
According to MLA style, an interview that you conduct should be included on the Works Cited page. List the interview by the name of the interviewee. Include the descriptor "Personal interview" and the date of the interview, as in the following example: Billiken, Billy.
- An interview is a conversation where questions are asked and answers are given. In common parlance, the word "interview" refers to a one-on-one conversation with one person acting in the role of the interviewer and the other in the role of the interviewee.
- Some sources do not have authors or contributors – for instance, when you cite some websites. Instead, refer to the name of the source in your parenthetical citation in place of the author. Punctuate with quotations or italicize as you would in its works cited form (a book is italicized; an article is in quotes).
- However, here is what The Chicago Manual of Style says: When quoted in text or listed in a bibliography, titles of books, journals, plays, and other freestanding works are italicized; titles of articles, chapters, and other shorter works are set in roman and enclosed in quotation marks.
A bibliography usually contains all the works cited in a paper, but it may also include other works that the author consulted, even if they are not mentioned in the text. In APA Style, however, each reference cited in text must appear in the reference list, and each entry in the reference list must be cited in text.
- Citations are not used simply to avoid plagiarism; they have other important roles too. Referencing allows you to acknowledge the contribution of other writers and researcher in your work. Any university assignments that draw on the ideas, words or research of other writers must contain citations.
- Bibliography Examples. A bibliography is an alphabetized list of sources that have been used to compile data, typically in an article, essay, or research paper.
- Collect this information for each Web Site:
- author name.
- title of the publication (and the title of the article if it's a magazine or encyclopedia)
- date of publication.
- the place of publication of a book.
- the publishing company of a book.
- the volume number of a magazine or printed encyclopedia.
- the page number(s)
Updated: 3rd October 2019