Internal bleeding is serious for two reasons:
- the excess blood can compress organs and cause their dysfunction (as can occur in hematoma)
- when the bleeding does not stop spontaneously, the loss of blood will cause hemorrhagic shock, which can lead to brain damage and death.
What is the cause of internal bleeding?
Abdominal pain and/or swelling can be caused by Internal bleeding from trauma in the liver or spleen. These symptoms get worse as the bleeding continues. Light-headedness, dizziness, or fainting can result from any source of internal bleeding once enough blood is lost.
The suspicion of internal bleeding will often require an imaging test to look for the bleeding source. If there is concern that there is gastrointestinal bleeding, a gastroenterologist may use fiber optic scopes to look into the esophagus and stomach (endoscopy) or into the colon (colonoscopy) to identify the source.
Bleeding internally is often the result of trauma or an injury. Less obvious causes can result in internal bleeding too. When internal bleeding does occur, it needs medical attention. In some cases, the bleeding may be a sign of a life-threatening condition, and you should seek immediate medical attention.
Causes of upper GI bleeding. Peptic ulcers are a common cause of GI bleeding. These ulcers are open sores that develop in the lining of your stomach or duodenum. An infection from H. pylori bacteria usually causes peptic ulcers.
What are the symptoms of GI bleeding?
- black or tarry stool.
- bright red blood in vomit.
- cramps in the abdomen.
- dark or bright red blood mixed with stool.
- dizziness or faintness.
- feeling tired.
- shortness of breath.
As a type of hematoma, a bruise is always caused by internal bleeding into the interstitial tissues which does not break through the skin, usually initiated by blunt trauma, which causes damage through physical compression and deceleration forces. However, such injuries may be accompanied by bruising elsewhere.
Heavy drinking can cause damage to many organs and systems in the body, which can result in pancreatitis, internal bleeding, liver damage and anemia. Alcoholics have a higher risk of severe complications after all types of surgery, and thus show a much slower recovery rate after major operations.
Blood loss is the most common cause of anemia, especially iron-deficiency anemia. Heavy menstrual periods or bleeding in the digestive or urinary tract can cause blood loss. Surgery, trauma, or cancer also can cause blood loss. If a lot of blood is lost, the body may lose enough red blood cells to cause anemia.
The abdominal cavity is highly distensible and may easily hold greater than five liters of blood, or more than the entire circulating blood volume for an average-sized individual.
To control pain, bleeding, and inflammation, keep the muscle in a gentle stretch position and use the RICE formula:
- Rest. Protect the injured area from further harm by stopping play.
- Ice. Apply ice wrapped in a clean cloth.
- Compression. Lightly wrap the injured area in a soft bandage or ace wrap.
Abdominal trauma is an injury to the abdomen. Signs and symptoms include abdominal pain, tenderness, rigidity, and bruising of the external abdomen. It is divided into two types blunt or penetrating and may involve damage to the abdominal organs.Injury to the lower chest may cause splenic or liver injuries.
The two types of hemorrhagic strokes are intracerebral (within the brain) hemorrhage or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a weakened blood vessel ruptures. Two types of weakened blood vessels usually cause hemorrhagic stroke: aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).
Hypovolemic. Hypovolemic shock is the most common type of shock and is caused by insufficient circulating volume. Its primary cause is haemorrhage (internal or external), or loss of fluid from the circulation. Vomiting and diarrhea are the most common cause in children.
As a result, upper gastrointestinal bleeding is considered a medical emergency and typically requires hospital care for urgent diagnosis and treatment. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding can be caused by peptic ulcers, gastric erosions, esophageal varices, and some rarer causes such as gastric cancer.
Cause of Bleeding Varices. Portal hypertension is an increase in the pressure within the portal vein (the vein that carries blood from the digestive organs to the liver). It's often due to scarring of the liver, or cirrhosis. The varices are fragile and can rupture easily, resulting in a large amount of blood loss.
Bleeding, or hemorrhage, is the name used to describe blood loss. It can refer to blood loss inside the body, called internal bleeding. Or it can refer to blood loss outside of the body, called external bleeding. Internal bleeding occurs when blood leaks out through a damaged blood vessel or organ.
The symptoms include:
- A sudden severe headache.
- Seizures with no previous history of seizures.
- Weakness in an arm or leg.
- Nausea or vomiting.
- Decreased alertness; lethargy.
- Changes in vision.
- Tingling or numbness.
- Difficulty speaking or understanding speech.
Occasionally, straining can push an internal hemorrhoid through the anal opening. This is known as a protruding or prolapsed hemorrhoid and can cause pain and irritation. External hemorrhoids. These are under the skin around your anus. When irritated, external hemorrhoids can itch or bleed.
Bleeding. At first, a cancer may bleed slightly because its blood vessels are fragile. Later, as the cancer enlarges and invades surrounding tissues, it may grow into a nearby blood vessel, causing bleeding. Bleeding into the lungs can cause the person to cough up blood.
If the fallopian tube ruptures, internal bleeding can occur. Blood loss may cause weakness, fainting, pain, shock, or even death. Sometimes vaginal bleeding is the only sign of an ectopic pregnancy. The pregnancy will not survive, and it must be removed with medication or surgery (see FAQ155 “Ectopic Pregnancy”).
External bleeding refers to blood coming from an open wound. The term hemorrhage refers to a large amount of bleeding in a short time. External bleed- ing can be classified into three types according to the type of blood vessel that is damaged: an artery, vein, or capillary .